|What is a varied diet?
|Everything you need to keep the body healthy
|Why can some people eat more food than others without getting fat?
|-Different people need different amounts of energy -Different people have different metabolic rates
|Why should an athlete's diet be different to ours?
|the more exercise you do, the more energy you need to intake
|What happens if you eat too much?
|If you intake more energy than you use, you will store the excess as fat
|What health problems can be caused by being overweight?
|-Arthritis -Type 2 diabetes -High blood pressure -Heart disease -Early death
|What health issues can come from being not eating enough food?
|Deficiency diseases like: -Anaemia -Rickets -Beri-Beri
|Why are people who do exercise usually healthier than those who do not?
|Physical exercise helps reduce weight and maintains health.
|What inherited factors affect your health?
|-Metabolic rate -Cholesterol levels
|What is your metabolic rate?
|The rate at which reactions take place inside your body. It affects how quickly the energy you intake can contribute to things like exercise and growth.
|What are pathogens?
|Microorganisms that cause disease
|How do pathogens cause disease?
|The microorganisms enter and attack your body
|What does 'infectious' mean?
|If a microorganism can be passed on from one person to another, it is infectious.
|What are bacteria?
|Bacteria are single-celled living organisms that are much smaller than any other plant or animal cell
|What are viruses?
|Viruses are even smaller than bacteria. They usually have regular shapes and can cause diseases in every living organism from people to bacteria.
|How did Ignaz Semmelweis change the way we look at disease?
|Semmelweis recognised the importance of hand-washing in preventing the spread of an infectious disease in hospitals
|How does your body prevent pathogens getting in?
|Your body has many ways of preventing pathogens from getting inside you like: -The skin acts as a barrier -Mucus of the breathing system -The clotting of the blood
|How do white blood cells protect you from disease?
|-Some ingest (take in) pathogens -Some create antibodies that destroy particular viruses and bacteria -Some produce antitoxins that cancel out the toxins released by pathogens
|What are antibodies?
|Antibodies are chemicals created by white blood cells to destroy bad bacteria and viruses. You need a particular type of antibody for different pathogens. Once your antibody is used, the white blood cell remembers how it made the specific antibody and is ready to fight the same pathogen if it returns
|What is a medicine?
|Medicines relieve the symptoms of disease but cannot kill the pathogens that cause it.
|What are antibiotics?
|Antibiotics cure bacterial diseases by killing the bacteria inside your body
|Why can't antibiotics cure viruses?
|Antibiotics cannot destroy viruses because viruses reproduce inside the cells. It is difficult to produce a drug that can destroy a virus without damaging your body.
|How can we grow an uncontaminated culture of bacteria in a lab?
|-Use sterilised petri dishes and agar (jelly) -Sterilise the inoculating loop -Seal the lid on the petri dish
|Why do we need uncontaminated cultures?
|We need them to investigate the effects of chemicals like disinfectants and antibiotics on microorganisms
|What temperature should the cultures be kept at in schools and collages and why?
|25 degrees Celsius. To prevent the growth of harmful pathogens
|What is antibiotic resistance?
|When microorganisms like bacteria learn to change and mutate into new shapes when a drug is threatening to destroy it
|How does your immune system work?
|When your white blood cells create antibodies to destroy pathogens, they remember the pathogen for if the pathogen comes along again. This makes you immune to the disease.
|How does vaccination protect you against disease?
|You can be immunised against a disease by being given a small amouts of dead or inactive pathogens through a vaccine. Your white blood cells will create the antibodies needed.
|How has the treatment of disease changed over time?
|Our understanding of antibiotics and immunity has increased