BISC 100 - Lecture 23: DNA RNA

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Flashcards on BISC 100 - Lecture 23: DNA RNA, created by Chelsi Souch on 10/08/2016.
Chelsi Souch
Flashcards by Chelsi Souch, updated more than 1 year ago
Chelsi Souch
Created by Chelsi Souch over 7 years ago
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CELLS CONTAIN THOUSANDS OF DIFFERENT PROTEINS unique AA sequence unique 3-D structure a specific function CELLS ALSO CONTAIN MEMBRANE SYSTEMS AND ORGANELLES etc. CELL MUST HAVE INFORMATION TO ORGANIZE ITSELF IN THIS WAY AND, WHEN A CELL DIVIDES, THIS INFORMATION MUST BE PASSED TO THE NEXT GENERATION
THE SEARCH FOR THE GENETIC MATERIAL The DNA molecule contains instructions for the development and functioning of all living organisms
FREDERICK GRIFFITHS MOVEMENT OF A SUBSTANCE FROM ONE STRAIN OF BACTERIA TO ANOTHER TRANSFORMS HARMLESS STRAINS INTO PATHOGENIC (disease causing) STRAINS
OSWALD AVERY REMOVED ALL PROTEIN FROM R BACTERIA BUT TRANSFORMING ACTIVITY NOT REDUCED DETAILED CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL TESTS SHOWED THAT THE “TRANSFORMING PRINCIPLE” PASSED FROM DEAD TO LIVING BACTERIA WAS DNA! DNA is the HEREDITARY MATERIAL!
THE GENTIC INSTRUCTION OF VIRUSES ARE CONTAINED IN DNA BACTERIOPHAGE (bacteria infecting viruses) INFECTING BACTERIAL CELL
ROSALIND FRANKLIN X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE OF DNA
WATSON AND CRICK (1953) PROPOSED THE STRUCTURE OF DNA: * That there were two strands of nucleotides in DNA * That ONLY certain combinations of bases could pair with each other NOBEL PRIZE IN 1962
DNA POLYNUCLEOTIDE
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE THREE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS IN NUCLEOTIDES • Phosphate group: Acidic and negatively charged in basic pH • Sugar : Pentose (5C) Ribose in RNA and Deoxyribose in DNA • Nitrogenous bases: A, T, G, C, U (Adenine, Thymine, Guanine,Cytosine, Uracil) A, G have two ring structure: Purines G, C, U have one ring structure: Pyrimidines
DNA vs RNA DNA has deoxyribose pentose sugar RNA has Ribose pentose sugar • DNA double stranded RNA single stranded • DNA has Pyrimidine: Thymine, Cytosine RNA has pyrimidine: Uracil, Cytocine Both have the purines: Adenine and Guanine
DNA REPLICATION Making more DNA in a cell Occurs in S phase of cell cycle ٭ Depends on specific base pairing ٭ Requires complete and faithful copies of DNA be produced ٭ Each half of the double helix can act as a template upon which, a new missing half is built ٭ Each new double helix consists of one old and one new strand (semi-conservative )
How does information in DNA is given to make proteins? Takes place via TWO processes: 1. Information in DNA is first TRANSCRIBED INTO THAT OF RNA 2. Information in RNA is then TRANSLATED INTO PROTEINS (Nucleic acid language to Protein language) – In eukaryotic cells, • Transcription occurs in the nucleus. • Translation occurs in the cytoplasm
FLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION
Translation is divided into three phases: •Initiation • Elongation • Termination
MUTATIONS: 2 Types 1. Base substitutions Point mutation 2. Base insertions or Deletions Frame shift mutations Mutations may result from • errors in DNA replication transcription or recombination (crossing over) or • physical or chemical agents e.g., UV irradiation and chemicals called mutagens. – Mutations are often harmful but are also useful in nature and the laboratory as a source of genetic diversity, which makes evolution by natural selection possible
There are many ways chromosomes may rearrange: Chromosomes break naturally or due to exposure to radiation 1. Duplication 2. Translocation 3. Inversion 4. Deletions
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