Biological molecules

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Biological molecules overview
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Resource summary

Biological molecules
  1. Molecules found in living cells
    1. Metabolism:
      1. All chemical reactions in cells of an organism
        1. Respiration, synthesising proteins from amino acids
        2. Two types of Metabolism:
          1. Catabolism: Breaking down of molecules
            1. Anabolism: Building up of large molecules
          2. Made up of 4 KEY elements:
            1. CARBON (C)
              1. Carbon Valency: 4
              2. NITROGEN (N)
                1. Nitrogen Valency: 3
                2. OXYGEN (O)
                  1. Oxygen Valency : 2
                  2. HYDROGEN (H)
                    1. Hydrogen Valency: 1
                    2. VALENCY: Amount of chemical bonds an element can form
                    3. Can ALSO include:
                      1. Sodium (Na+)
                        1. Poatssium (K+)
                          1. Calcium (Ca2+)
                            1. Iron (Fe2+)
                              1. Magnesium (Mg2+)
                                1. Chloride (Cl-)
                                  1. Sulphur (S)
                                    1. Phosphate (P)
                                      1. ALL found in biological in TRACE amounts
                                      2. Your body
                                        1. Systems
                                          1. Organs
                                            1. Tissues
                                              1. Cells
                                                1. Proteins
                                                  1. Carbohydrates
                                                    1. Lipids/Fats
                                                      1. Nucleic acids
                                                        1. All come from food & macromolecules
                                                          1. Macromolecules are made up of repeated smaller units
                                                            1. Smaller units: monomers
                                                      2. 3 types of CARBOHYDRATES
                                                        1. Monosaccharide: simple sugars with general formula (CH2O)n
                                                          1. GLUCOSE
                                                            1. Abundant & very important monosacc
                                                              1. Contains 6 CARBON atoms- HEXOSE sugar
                                                                1. Genreal formula for HEXOSE sugars: C6H1206 e.g. Fructose, Glucose, Galactose
                                                              2. Main ENERGY source for most cells
                                                                1. Highly SOLUBLE
                                                                2. Main form in which Carbs are TRANSPORTED around body of animals
                                                                  1. Glucose in diff forms are called STRUCTURAL ISOMERS
                                                                    1. ALPHA GLUCOSE
                                                                      1. BETA GLUCOSE
                                                                        1. Can be found in cellulose (plant cells)
                                                                    2. Other monomers: Fructose & Galactose
                                                                      1. FRUCTOSE
                                                                        1. SOLUBLE & main sugar in fruits & nectar
                                                                          1. Sweeter than Glucose
                                                                            1. HEXOSE sugar. C6H1206
                                                                            2. GALACTOSE
                                                                              1. Disaccharide found in lactose
                                                                                1. Lactose found in milk (sugar in milk).
                                                                                  1. HEXOSE sugar C6H1206
                                                                          2. Disaccharides: 'Double sugars' formed from 2 monosaccs
                                                                            1. Polysaccharide: Large molecules formed from monosaccs joined together.
                                                                            2. Group of structural material in organisms
                                                                3. ORGANIC
                                                                  1. Contains Carbon (C) & is found in living things EXCEPT Carbon dioxide (CO2) & Bicarbonate ions (HCO-3)
                                                                  2. PENTOSE
                                                                    1. Sugars that contain 5 carbon atoms
                                                                      1. Found in DNA & RNA
                                                                        1. Oxyribose & Deoxyribose
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