|the rate of the forward reaction is the same as the rate of the backwards reaction. concentrations of the reactants and products are constant.
|when all the products and reactants have the same state.
|when all the products and reactants have different states.
|reactants form products and products form reactants.
|le chateliers principle
|any system in dynamic equilibrium will oppose ant change imposed on it.
|speeds up the rate of reaction without being used up itself by providing an alternative route and lowering the activation energy.
|minimum amount of energy to start a chemical reaction.
|dynamic equilibrium: temperature
|increase= favours endothermic decrease=favours exothermic endo=()H positive- forward will=endo/left exo=()H negative- forward will=exo/right
|dynamic equilibrium: pressure
|*only affects gases* increase=favours side with fewest moles to decrease pressure decrease=favours side with most molecules to increase pressure
|dynamic equilibrium: concentration
|increase reactants, shift right to decrease concentration decrease products, shift right to increase concentration increase products, shift left to decrease concentration
|dynamic equilibrium: catalysts
|no effect on the equilibrium because they speed up the forward and reverse reaction by the same amount
|dynamic equilibrium: yield
|equilibrium shifts right= more products = more yield equilibrium shifts left=less product= less yield
|equilibrium constant (Kc) Kc rules
|if there are more products than reactants Kc= bigger than 1 more reactants than products Kc= smaller than 1 equilibrium= half way between R and P Kc= 1
|what affect will adding a catalyst have on the rate of reaction (3 marks)
|1. increase 2.as a catalyst lowers the activation energy a greater proportion of particles possess an energy greater than the Ea. 3. therefore more collisions will be successful