GCSE Biology Flashcards on Keywords, created by Leann McLeod on 31/03/2016.
Leann McLeod
Flashcards by Leann McLeod, updated more than 1 year ago
Leann McLeod
Created by Leann McLeod over 7 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Movement an action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or place
Respiration chemical reactions in cells that break down nutrient molecule & release energy for metabolism
Sensitivity the ability to detect or sense stimluli in the internal or external environment and to make appropriate responses
Excretion remocal from organisms of the waste products of metabolism, toxic materials and substances in excess of requirements
Species a group of organisms that can reproduce to produce fertile offspring
tissue a group of cells with similar structures, working together to perform a shared function
organ a structure made up of a group of tissues, working together to perform specific functions
organ system a group of organs with related functions, working together to perform body functions
diffusion the net movement of particles from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration down a concentration gradient, as a result of their random movement
osmosis the net movement of water molecules from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower water potential, through a partially permeable membrane
active transport the movement of particles through a cell membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration using energy from respiration
catalyst a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction and is not changed by the reaction
enzymes proteins that function as biological catalysts
photosynthesis the process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials using energy from light
limiting factor something present in the environment in such short supply that it restricts life processes
ingestion the taking of substances e.g food and drink into the body through the mouth
Mechanical digestion the breakdown of food into smaller without chemical change to the food molecules
Chemical Digestion the breakdown of of large insoluble molecules into small soluble molecules
absorption the movement of small food molecules and ions through the wall of the intestine into the blood
assimilation the movement of digested food molecules into the cells of the body where they are used, becoming part of the cells
egestion the passing out of food that has not been digested or absorbed, as faeces, through the anus
transpiration loss of water vapour from plant leaves by evaporation of water at the surfaces of the mesophyll cells followed by the diffusion of water through the stomata
translocation the movement of sucrose and amino acids in the phloem from regions of production or regions of storage to regions where they are used in respiration or growth
pathogen a disease causing organism
transmissible disease a disease in which the pathogen can be passed from one host to another
active immunity defence against a pathogen by antibody production in the body
passive immunity short-term defence against a pathogen by antibodies acquired from another individual e.g. mother to infant
aerobic respiration the chemical reactions in cells that use oxygen to break down nutrient molecules to release energy
anaerobic respiration the chemical reactions in cells that break down nutrient molecules to release energy without using oxygen
deamination the removal of the nitrogen-containing part of amino acids to form urea
synapse a junction between 2 neurones
sense organs groups of receptor cells responding to specific stimuli: light, sound, touch, temperature and chemicals
hormone a chemical substance, produced by a gland and carried by the blood which alters the activity of one or more target organs
Homeostasis the maintenance of a constant internal environment
gravitropsim/geotropism a response in which parts of a plant grow towards or away from gravity
Phototropism a response in which parts of a plant grow towards or away from the direction from which light is coming
Drug any substance taken into the body that modifies or affects chemical reactions in the body
asexual reproduction a process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent
sexual reproduction a process involving the fusion of 2 nuclei of 2 gametes to form a zygote and the production of that are genetically different from each other
fertilisation the fusion of the gamete nuclei
pollination the transfer of the pollen grains from the anther to the stigma
self-pollination the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or different flower on the same plant
cross-pollination the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of different flower of the same species
sexually transmitted infection An infection that is transmitted via bodily fluids through sexual contact
inheritance the transmission of genetic information from generation to generation
chromosome a thread-like structure of DNA, carrying genetic information in the form of genes
gene a length of DNA that codes for a protein
allele a version of a gene
haploid nucleus a nucleus containing a single set of unpaired chromosomes, e.g. in gametes
diploid nucleus a nucleus containing two sets of chromosomes, e.g. in body cells
mitosis nuclear division giving rise to genetically identical cells
meiosis reduction division in which the chromosome number is halved from diploid to haploid resulting in genetically different cells
genotype the genetic make-up of an organism in terms of the alleles present
phenotype the observable features of an organism
homozygous having two identical alleles of a particular gene
heterozygous having two different alleles of a particular gene
dominant an allele that is expressed if it is present
recessive an allele that is only expressed when there is no dominant allele of the gene present
sex-linked characteristic a characteristic in which the gene responsible is located on a sex chromosome and that this makes it more common in one sex than in the other
variation differences between individuals of the same species
mutation genetic change
gene mutation a change in the base sequence of DNA
adaptive feature the inherited functional features of an organism that increase its fitness
fitness the probability of an organism surviving and reproducing in the environment in which it is found
process of adaption the process, resulting from natural selection, by which populations become more suited to their environment over many generations
food chain showing the transfer of energy from one organism to the next, beginning with a produce
trophic level the position of an organism in a food chain, food web, pyramid of numbers or pyramid of biomass
food web a network of interconnected food chains
producer an organism that makes its own organic nutrients, usually using energy from sunlight, through photosynthesis
consumer an organism that gets its energy by feeding on other organisms
herbivore an animal that gets its energy by eating plants
carnivore an animal that gets its energy by eating other animals
decomposer an organism that gets energy from dead or waste organic material
population a group of organism of one species, living in the same area, at the same time
community all of the populations of different species in an ecosystem
ecosystem a unit containing the community of organisms and their environment, interacting together e.g. decomposing log or a lake
genetic engineering changing the genetic material of an organism by removing, changing or inserting individual genes
sustainable resource one which is produced as rapidly as it is removed from the environment so that it does not run out
sustainable development development providing for the needs of an increasing human population without harming the environment
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