|What did John Locke contribute to the Enlightenment?
|Said that people have natural rights to "life, liberty and property" (in Declaration of Independence).
|What did Thomas Hobbes contribute to the Enlightenment?
|He said that we need a king that can protect the people and make trusted decisions for them.
|What did Voltaire contribute to the Enlightenment?
|Stated that people should have freedoms of thought, speech, and religion (which inspired the 1st Amendment in the US Constitution)
|What did Rousseau contribute to the Enlightenment?
|Said that power corrupts people and that people should give up their power to be ruled by the "general will of authority."
|What were the effects of the Scientific Revolution on the society of Europe?
|People had a different way of thought and of viewing the world. People believed that the world could progress and be perfected. Moreover, science ideas brought the European governments to the ground.
|What is meant by "Natural Rights"?
|Natural Rights Rights that belong to people since birth; right to life, liberty, and property
|What is "Liberty"?
|Having freedom in society with little or no restrictions.
|How did the Enlightenment lead to the American and French Revolution?
|The enlightenment led to ideas that government was misusing and was taking away peoples' liberty and equality.
|What did Montesquieu contribute to the Enlightenment?
|Had the idea of dividing the government's power into three (separation of powers) branches. No branches would have more power over another branch (checks and balances).
|How did Marry Wollstonecraft contribute to the Enlightenment?
|Had the Idea that women should have the same rights as men, equal rights.
|How did Jefferson contribute to the Enlightenment?
|His "Declaration of Independence" inspired people to overthrow their government and democracy.
|What does "Enlightened Despot" mean?
|Absolute Rulers that embrace the new ideas and reforms created during the Enlightenment.
|Give some examples of "Enlightened Despots."
|Catherine the Great of Russia, Fredrick the II of Prussia, and Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria.
|What did Fredrick the II of Prussia do during the Enlightenment?
|He granted many religious freedoms, abolished torture, and improved the education and justice system.
|What did Catherine the Great of Russia do during the Enlightenment?
|Modernized and reformed Russsia according the writings of philosophies.
|What did Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria do during the Enlightenment?
|Tried to enforce freedom of religion
|What was the Enlightenment?
|A cultural and scientific movement that began in the late 17th - 18th century emphasizing reason and individualism, rather than tradition.
|What is a social contract?
|Agreement by which people give up a state of nature for an organized society.
|What did Becarria contribute to the Enlightenment?
|Had the idea of abolishing torture. Lead to torture becoming outlawed or reduced in Europe and North America.
|What did Issac Newton's ideas contribute to?
|The Scientific Revolution.
|What is the Scientific Revolution?
|Scientific discoveries and A new way of how people viewed the world.
|What did the Scientific Revolution encourage people to do?
|The Scientific Revolution encouraged people to question things around them.
|What did Fredrick the II of Prussia call himself?
|"The first servant of the state"
|What is a salon?
|A palace where social gatherings were held. Philosophers, artists, writers, scientists, and other great intellects went to discuss ideas.
|Once people have a small taste of freedom, then they will want more. American Revolution = 1st taste ice cream!!!
|Why is learning good?
|The more we know, the more we learn, the greater ideas are created.
|Why didn't people (at first) not want a democracy?
|They considered Roman & Greek democracy a failure (because their government didn't last as long)
|Who was Dennis Diderot and what did he do?
|He collected collected Enlightenment articles in an Encyclopedia that helped to spread ideas throughout Europe and the Americas. His Encyclopedia had articles from famous authors.
|How did new ideas create greater challenges to society?
|While churches and monarchies tried to stop the flow of ideas, Enlightenment thinkers found new ways of spreading their ideas, such as through novels and salons.
|How did churches and monasteries try to stop Enlightenment ideas from being spread?