|What are plants and animals made up of?
|What parts do all animal and plant cells have in common?
|The nucleus, cytoplasm, the cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes.
|What is the function of the nucleus?
|The nucleus contains genetic material which controls the activities of the cell.
|What is cytoplasm?
|A thick liquid in which most chemical reactions inside a cell occur, controlled by enzymes.
|What is the function of the cell membrane?
|The cell membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell.
|What is the function of a mitochondrion (mitochondria)?
|To produce energy for cells by cellular respiration.
|What is the function of a ribosome?
|Ribosomes are where protein synthesis occurs.
|What cellular components are found only in plants?
|Cell walls, chloroplasts and permanent vacuoles.
|What is the purpose of a cell wall?
|To strengthen a cell.
|What is the function of a chloroplast?
|They contain chlorophyll which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis.
|What is the function of a permanent vacuole?
|Permanent vacuoles are filled with cell sap to keep the cell turgid (enlarged and swollen with water).
|You need to memorize the components on the back of this flashcard!
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|What is the structure of a bacterial cell?
|It has cytoplasm, a membrane and a cell wall, but the genetic material in a bacterial cell is not in a distinct nucleus.
|What is the structure of a fungal cell, such as a yeast cell?
|Like bacterial cells, yeast cells have cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall. But unlike bacterial cells, yeast cells have a nucleus.
|How many cells is a bacterium made up of?
|A bacterium is a single celled organism.
|Not a question, but you must remember this!
|You must appreciate how different cellular organisation still maintains life.
|Why are some cells specialized?
|Because they must carry out a specific task, e.g. blood cells must transport oxygen and carbon dioxide around our body efficiently.
|What do specialized cells develop?
|Specialized cells develop special structures to help them perform their function.
|What is diffusion?
|Diffusion is where particles move from a region where they are in high concentration to a region where they are in low concentration. Diffusion happens when the particles are free to move. This is true in gases and for particles dissolved in solutions.
|How easily do substances move in and out of cells by diffusion?
|What is the link between diffusion rate and concentration of particles in different areas?
|The greater the difference in concentration between two areas, the greater the rate of diffusion.
|What other factors affect the rate of diffusion?
|Resistance to diffusion (e.g. thickness of cell membrane), the temperature (warmer temperature means faster diffusion), molecular weight (the heavier the molecule, the slower the rate) and pressure (the greater the pressure, the greater the rate of diffusion).
|What is the formula for magnification of an image?
|I = size of image, A = actual size, M = magnification. I=AM