|Claim of Fact
|Posits (assumes as a fact) that something is true.
|Claim of Value
|Purports (claims) something is good or bad.
|Claim of Policy
|Proposes (suggests) a course of action. It is a solution to a problem.
|Can be used to substantiate (provide evidence) for a claim being made.
|Using statements made by others to endorse (support) the perspective you are promoting.
|Conveys (transfers) the who, what, where, when, why, an dhow of the position held.
|A comparison that helps a listener understand an unknown idea by comparing it to a known idea.
|Show numerical variance (relationships) between ideas. Accurate and concrete support.
|Uses words with positive and negative connotations (idea of a feeling a word creates) to stir people's emotions.
|A brief argument that negates reservations (situations of inaccuracy) or objections to the claim that the "other side" is likely to raise.
|The information that will be recognized as evidence. It is a total collection of information, although only a portion may be used.
|The connection between the data and the claim. This gives legitimacy to the claim.
|Taps into people's desire to belong or be part of a group.
|Implies that ordinary people are in "our side" or that a candidate is a regular person.
|Emotional Appeal (Pathos)
|Appeal to pity, fear, or vanity. Use strong feelings rather than facts and evidence to persuade.
|Appeal to Values (Pathos & Ethos)
|Taps into people's values or moral standards.
|Uses similar grammatical construction and order to express ideas that are related or equal in importance. Often creates a rhythm.