Minimum Genome

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Year 2 Flashcards on Minimum Genome, created by gina_evans0312 on 28/12/2013.
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Flashcards by gina_evans0312, updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by gina_evans0312 about 10 years ago
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Question Answer
Genome Entire Genetic Compliment of a Genome
C-Value Total amount of DNA in the haploid genome
C-Value paradox Lack of correlation between C-value and complexity due to various levels of repeating DNA
Viral Genome Size Variation 10^3 - 10^6
Bacterial Genome Size Variation 10^6-7
Eukaryotic Genome Size Variation 10^6-11
Oganism In Which C-Value Is Related To Complexity Bacteria
Mycoplasma Genitalium Smallest simple parasite
Nasuia Deltocypheria Smallest bacteria known- 112,000kbp
Genome size is _ proportional to gene number Directly
Pelagibacter Ubique- Genome Size 1 million kBp (approx)
Pelagibacter Ubique- Why so important? Smallest free living organism
Pelagibacter Ubique- How so small? Few regulatory gene & no pseudo/phage genes
Viral Overlapping Genes Usually each strand codes a separate gene i.e. VP3 is found in coding region for VP2
Bacterial Replicons Megaplasmids/minichromosomes
Bacterial Chromosomes 1- few have more
Bacterial Chromosome Replication- Begins At origin- though there can be multiple origins
Genes Near Origin Tend to be more important
Bacterial Gene Orientation In direction of replication- prevents head on collision between replication fork & transcription factors
Operon Group of genes transcribed onto a single mRNA
Cluster Genes found together & involved in the same process but transcribed separately
Experimentation- Null Mutations See what effect this has on organism (done through recombination/RNA interference)
Recombination Cauing Null Mutations Introduce gene containing a marker halfway through gene to be disrupted
Minimum Genome Theoretical minimum no of genes needed to sustain life
Essential genes Required for core processes i.e. DNA replication
Non-essential genes Not vital but incur an advantage on organism
Finding Core Genes- Methods Null mutations/DNA comparisons
Finding Core Genes- DNA comparisons Compare two small genomes- genes in common are most likely to be vital
Finding Core Genes- Null Mutations Study effects of null mutations- if organism dies, gene is most likely to be vital
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