AS English language terminology revision


My AS English language Golssary (Constantly being adapted)
Caitlin Hadfield
Flashcards by Caitlin Hadfield, updated more than 1 year ago
Caitlin Hadfield
Created by Caitlin Hadfield over 8 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Affixes Things attached to words Eg: un
Assonance Repetition of vowel sounds for effect.
Archaic lexis Words used in earlier century's
Anaphora Describes the practice of referring backwards in language
Articulator Lips, teeth, tongue, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate, uvula, glottis.
Apposition A relationship between two or more words or phrases in which the two units are grammatically parallel. Eg: Mrs chip the joiners wife.
Alveolar The alveolar ridge is a flatish platform that is the most common place in the mouth for articulating consonants.
Abstract noun A noun used for a non-physical thing.
Ambiguity The quality of being open to more than one interpretation.
Antonym Contrasting words (E.g hot and cold)
Adjective A word used to describe something.
Actual writer The 'real' person or people responsible for text production.
Apposition A relationship between two or more words or phrases in which the two units are grammatically parallel. (E.g. Mrs Chip the joiners wife)
Actual reader Any person or groups of people who engage with and interpret a text.
Anti-language The language of a social group which develops as a means of preventing people from outside the group understanding it.
Amelioration When a word becomes more positive over time (E.g. 'wicked')
Abbreviations Eg: 'cause' instead of 'because'.
Accent The ways in which words are pronounced. Accent can vary according to the region or social class of a speaker.
Adjacency pairs Parallel expressions used across the boundaries of individual speaking turns. They are usually ritualistic and formulaic socially. Eg: 'How are you?' / 'Fine thanks'.
Blended-mode A text which contains conventional elements of both speech and writing.
Biblical lexis Words used in the language of the bible and would sound old fashioned to a modern speaker
Blending Making a single word out of parts of two separate words. (E.g. Leggings + Jeans = Jeggings)
Broadening When a word broadens and has added meaning (E.g. dog used to mean the animal but now it means all of the breeds of dogs).
Back-Channel features Words, phrases and non-verbal utterances Eg: When listening to someone on the phone and you say 'Yeah', 'I see', 'Okay', 'Uh huh'.
Cliches Might be used to indicate that the speaker has nothing to say, That they are buying some time or that they don't care about the conversation very much. Eg: 'That's life'.
Colloquial idiom The phrases which characterize spoken language and which don't seem to serve any particular communicative function in and of themselves. Eg: 'in a minute', 'the thing is', 'As far as i can see'.
Cohesion Text is connected / flows together by the use of connectives
Contraction A reduced form often marked by an apostrophe in writing. Eg: 'Can't = Cannot', 'She'll = She will'.
Common nouns Nouns which do not refer to a particular person, place, day or time of year.
Consonance Deliberate repetition of consonant sounds for effect.
Connector of enumeration A word used to show what order / when things occur.
Connotation Feelings, ideas and attitudes associated with word choices
Conversational speech Characteristic of informal spoken language or conversation.
Connector of addition A word used to show that you are adding more information.
Concrete noun Words used to describe physical objects.
Continuum A sequence in which elements that are next to each other are not noticeably different but elements at the opposite ends are very different from each other.
Compounding Putting words together.
Courtesy terms Eg: 'Please', 'Thank you'
co-operative principles Grice's maxims
Convert prestige Convert prestige refers to the status of those speakers who don't yet own the 'dialect' of the group they desire to belong to.
Derivational prefixes / suffixes Added to a root to form a new word
Deixis Pointing words such as 'this', 'that', 'here', 'there'
Discourse(s) This word has many meanings, for spoken language it is used to refer to the routines of language. Eg: the language routine when we visit our doctor, or get sent to see the head of house/year. (these examples give aspects of power)
Discourse event An act of communication occurring in a specific time and location involving writers/speakers and readers/listeners.
Decontextualised extracts Taking bits apart from things such as posters, texts etc.
Discourse community A group of people with shared interests and belief systems who are likely to respond to texts in similar ways.
Delection Something is left out. Delection's refer to words which are left out. Ellipsis normally refers to more than one missing word.
Dialect The distinctive grammar and vocabulary which is associated with a regional social use of a language.
Denotation The literal or primary meaning of a word, in contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word suggests:
Descriptivist A linguist that analyses and explores the effects of language
Discourse event An act of communication occurring in a specific time and location involving writers / speakers and readers / listeners.
Digressions If you steer away from the the topic then you digress. Digressions are often used to give a new perspective or direction to a subject. HEDGES are often used to introduce digression.
Everyday lexis Words and phrases that are the most frequently used in everyday speech and writing.
Formal Lexis Suitable for formal speech and writing but not normally used in an ordinary conversation
Figurative language imagery techniques (E.g. Metaphor, simile etc)
False start When you start speaking, pause, and then correct yourself.
Free morpheme A morpheme that can stand on its own as a word
Genre A way of grouping texts based on expected shared conventions.
Homophone A word pronounced the same as another but differs in meaning.
Hyponym Words that fit into categories (E.g. Dog breeds: Collie, shih Tzu etc)
Hedge When you don't give a definite answer (E.g. 'possibly' / 'I might')
Hypernym Name/ types of categories (E.g. Dog breeds)
Heterophone A word that is written identically but has a different pronunciation and meaning.
Humorous lexis Words that are normally used in a joking way
Interruptions The speaker hasn't finished but someone else starts talking anyway.
Impolite lexis Words and phrases that are considered rude and that might offend some people
Inflectional prefixes / suffixes Show tense of verbs / plural form of nouns
Informal lexis Words / phrases used in normal conversation but may not be suitable in more formal contexts Eg: in essays
intertextuality A process by which texts borrow from or refer to conventions of other texts for a specific purpose and effect.
Implied writer A constructed image of an idealised writer.
Irony The expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect.
Implicature What is being implied rather than what is being said.
Idiolect Individual language thumbprint of the words we say / how we speak.
Inference Reading between the lines.
Intonation The sound pattern of phrases and sentences produced by pitch variation in the voice..
Jargon The language, especially vocabulary, peculiar to a particular trade, profession, or group. Eg: Medical Jargon
Lexis The framework that deals with the vocabulary system of language
Lexical onomatopoeia Words where there is a connection between its sound and meaning. Eg: splash.
Literary lexis Words used mainly in English literature and not in normal speech of writing.
Loudness Strongly audible; having exceptional volume or intensity: loud talking; loud whispers.
Lexicon The vocabulary for a language
Legal lexis Words with a technical meaning used by lawyers, in legal documents etc
layout The way in which something is presented.
Lexicon The full vocabulary of a language or of a group, individual, field of study. Eg: Tyre, Oil, Engine, Car etc)
Media Newspapers, Magazines, TV and Music.
Medical lexis Words or phrases that are more likely to be used by doctors than ordinary people.
Minimal pair Two words that differ in only one sound.
Modal auxiliary verb An auxiliary verb that joins with the main verb to demonstrate commitment towards an event or person that a speaker holds. Eg: may, must, could
Multi-purpose text A text that clearly has more than one purpose.
Mode The physical channel of communication: either speech or writing.
Material verb A word describing something physical.
Morpheme Smallest grammatical unit
Mental verb A word to show you are doing something non-physical (E.g. Thinking)
Minimal pair Two words that differ in only one sound
Multimodal text Text that contains features of the spoken mode and the written mode
Non-Fluency Features Typical and normal characteristics of spoken language that interrupt the 'flow' of talk. Eg: Hesitations, False starts, Fillers, Repetitions etc.
Nouns A word used for naming a person, place thing or idea.
Negative face When you do not accept someone's face (turn your back when someone is speaking)
Non-Sequitur A comment which, due to its lack of meaning relative to the comment it follows, is absurd to the point of being humorous or confusing.
Non-lexical onomatopoeia Signify a meaning through the use of sound. Eg: vrooom, brrrmmmm.
Neology The process of creating (coining) new words in a vocabulary
Narrowing When a word goes from being very broad to being very specific (E.g. 'girl' means young/ meant gender)
Neutral topics Eg: The weather.
Overlaps One speaker talks at the same time as an other. Eg: possibly to reassure someone.
Oppositional view A way of defining the difference between modes by arguing that they have completely different features.
Orthography The study of the use of letters (Capitals, italics, fonts etc)
Old-fashioned lexis Words that were commonly used in the past, but would sound old fashioned today.
Pace / timing The process or art of regulating actions or remarks in relation to others to produce the best effect.
Paralinguistic Features Related to body language - it is the use of gestures, facial expressions + other non-verbal elements (such as laughter) to add meaning to the speakers message beyond the words being spoken.
Phatic talk Conversational utterances that have no concrete purpose other than to establish or maintain personal personal relationships. Its related to small talk and follows traditional patterns. Eg: 'How are you?' / 'Fine', 'Cold isn't it?' / 'Freezing'.
Pitch The degree of height or depth of a tone or of sound, depending upon the relative rapidity of the vibrations by which it is produced.
Primary auxiliary verb An auxiliary verb that joins with the main verb to show tense Eg: be, do, have
Pragmatics An approach to discourse analysis which focuses less on structures and more on contexts and purposes of people talking to each other.
Prosodic features Includes features such as stress, rhythm, pitch, tempo and intonation - which are used by speakers to mark out key meanings in a message.
Phonological manipulation (Playing with sounds) Creative changes in sound patterns for deliberate effect.
Politeness strategies Ways of maintaining a conversation to keep it going.
Possessive pronoun Shows that you have possession of something.
Pejoration When words change over time to become more negative (E.g. 'gay')
Place of articulation The physical location as to where sound is created Eg: lips, teeth etc.
Proper nouns The name of a particular person, place, day or time of year. Always begins with a capital letter.
Preposition Words to show the time and place.
Phonetics how sounds are produced
Positive face When you accept people's face and act nice so they accept yours.
Prescriptivist A linguist that believes that language must follow rules and should stick to them
Phonology the science of speech (sound system)
Primary purpose The main and most recognisable purpose.
Prosodics The study of how meaning can be changed through changing volume, pace etc
Representation The portrayal of events, people, and circumstances through language and other meaning-making resources (E.g. images and sound) to create a way of seeing the world.
Root word Main unit of meaning
Register A variety of language that is associated with a particular situation of use.
Repair Same as a false start.
Semantics The framework that deals with meaning and how that is generated within texts
Situational characteristic A key characteristic of the time, place and contexts in which communication takes place.
Sound ionicity The matching of sound to an aspect of meaning.
Sibilance Repetition of fricat (ss, zzzz) sounds for effect.
Situation of use A specific place, time, and context in which communication takes place.
Semantic field Words used for a particular topic to create a certain atmosphere.
Spoken lexis Words or phrases used only in conversion.
Synonym Different words that have the same meaning.
Sociolect Variation in language use associated with members of a particular social group.
Secondary purpose An additional and more subtle purpose.
Text receivers The people interpreting a text.
Text producer's The people responsible for creating a text.
Taboo Lexis Words that should not be used because they are rude and offensive.
Technical lexis Words used by doctors, scientists and other specialists.
Implied reader A constructed image of an idealised reader.
Trade marks Words that are the name of particular products.
Tag question Asking someone a question in conversation.
Typography The study of how things are written in text form.
Written lexis Words and phrases used only in written English.
Verb phrase A group of words centred around a head verb. Can also contain auxiliary's
Variation The differences associated with particular instances of language use and between groups of language users.
Show full summary Hide full summary


Bowlby's Theory of Attachment
Jessica Phillips
Julia Romanów
Asch Study and Variations
Milgram (1963) Behavioural study of Obediance
AS Philosophy Exam Questions
Summer Pearce
Gilded Age
Evaluation of Conformity