|Things attached to words Eg: un
|Repetition of vowel sounds for effect.
|Words used in earlier century's
|Describes the practice of referring backwards in language
|Lips, teeth, tongue, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate, uvula, glottis.
|A relationship between two or more words or phrases in which the two units are grammatically parallel. Eg: Mrs chip the joiners wife.
|The alveolar ridge is a flatish platform that is the most common place in the mouth for articulating consonants.
|A noun used for a non-physical thing.
|The quality of being open to more than one interpretation.
|Contrasting words (E.g hot and cold)
|A word used to describe something.
|The 'real' person or people responsible for text production.
|A relationship between two or more words or phrases in which the two units are grammatically parallel. (E.g. Mrs Chip the joiners wife)
|Any person or groups of people who engage with and interpret a text.
|The language of a social group which develops as a means of preventing people from outside the group understanding it.
|When a word becomes more positive over time (E.g. 'wicked')
|Eg: 'cause' instead of 'because'.
|The ways in which words are pronounced. Accent can vary according to the region or social class of a speaker.
|Parallel expressions used across the boundaries of individual speaking turns. They are usually ritualistic and formulaic socially. Eg: 'How are you?' / 'Fine thanks'.
|A text which contains conventional elements of both speech and writing.
|Words used in the language of the bible and would sound old fashioned to a modern speaker
|Making a single word out of parts of two separate words. (E.g. Leggings + Jeans = Jeggings)
|When a word broadens and has added meaning (E.g. dog used to mean the animal but now it means all of the breeds of dogs).
|Words, phrases and non-verbal utterances Eg: When listening to someone on the phone and you say 'Yeah', 'I see', 'Okay', 'Uh huh'.
|Might be used to indicate that the speaker has nothing to say, That they are buying some time or that they don't care about the conversation very much. Eg: 'That's life'.
|The phrases which characterize spoken language and which don't seem to serve any particular communicative function in and of themselves. Eg: 'in a minute', 'the thing is', 'As far as i can see'.
|Text is connected / flows together by the use of connectives
|A reduced form often marked by an apostrophe in writing. Eg: 'Can't = Cannot', 'She'll = She will'.
|Nouns which do not refer to a particular person, place, day or time of year.
|Deliberate repetition of consonant sounds for effect.
|Connector of enumeration
|A word used to show what order / when things occur.
|Feelings, ideas and attitudes associated with word choices
|Characteristic of informal spoken language or conversation.
|Connector of addition
|A word used to show that you are adding more information.
|Words used to describe physical objects.
|A sequence in which elements that are next to each other are not noticeably different but elements at the opposite ends are very different from each other.
|Putting words together.
|Eg: 'Please', 'Thank you'
|Convert prestige refers to the status of those speakers who don't yet own the 'dialect' of the group they desire to belong to.
|Derivational prefixes / suffixes
|Added to a root to form a new word
|Pointing words such as 'this', 'that', 'here', 'there'
|This word has many meanings, for spoken language it is used to refer to the routines of language. Eg: the language routine when we visit our doctor, or get sent to see the head of house/year. (these examples give aspects of power)
|An act of communication occurring in a specific time and location involving writers/speakers and readers/listeners.
|Taking bits apart from things such as posters, texts etc.
|A group of people with shared interests and belief systems who are likely to respond to texts in similar ways.
|Something is left out. Delection's refer to words which are left out. Ellipsis normally refers to more than one missing word.
|The distinctive grammar and vocabulary which is associated with a regional social use of a language.
|The literal or primary meaning of a word, in contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word suggests:
|A linguist that analyses and explores the effects of language
|An act of communication occurring in a specific time and location involving writers / speakers and readers / listeners.
|If you steer away from the the topic then you digress. Digressions are often used to give a new perspective or direction to a subject. HEDGES are often used to introduce digression.
|Words and phrases that are the most frequently used in everyday speech and writing.
|Suitable for formal speech and writing but not normally used in an ordinary conversation
|imagery techniques (E.g. Metaphor, simile etc)
|When you start speaking, pause, and then correct yourself.
|A morpheme that can stand on its own as a word
|A way of grouping texts based on expected shared conventions.
|A word pronounced the same as another but differs in meaning.
|Words that fit into categories (E.g. Dog breeds: Collie, shih Tzu etc)
|When you don't give a definite answer (E.g. 'possibly' / 'I might')
|Name/ types of categories (E.g. Dog breeds)
|A word that is written identically but has a different pronunciation and meaning.
|Words that are normally used in a joking way
|The speaker hasn't finished but someone else starts talking anyway.
|Words and phrases that are considered rude and that might offend some people
|Inflectional prefixes / suffixes
|Show tense of verbs / plural form of nouns
|Words / phrases used in normal conversation but may not be suitable in more formal contexts Eg: in essays
|A process by which texts borrow from or refer to conventions of other texts for a specific purpose and effect.
|A constructed image of an idealised writer.
|The expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect.
|What is being implied rather than what is being said.
|Individual language thumbprint of the words we say / how we speak.
|Reading between the lines.
|The sound pattern of phrases and sentences produced by pitch variation in the voice..
|The language, especially vocabulary, peculiar to a particular trade, profession, or group. Eg: Medical Jargon
|The framework that deals with the vocabulary system of language
|Words where there is a connection between its sound and meaning. Eg: splash.
|Words used mainly in English literature and not in normal speech of writing.
|Strongly audible; having exceptional volume or intensity: loud talking; loud whispers.
|The vocabulary for a language
|Words with a technical meaning used by lawyers, in legal documents etc
|The way in which something is presented.
|The full vocabulary of a language or of a group, individual, field of study. Eg: Tyre, Oil, Engine, Car etc)
|Newspapers, Magazines, TV and Music.
|Words or phrases that are more likely to be used by doctors than ordinary people.
|Two words that differ in only one sound.
|Modal auxiliary verb
|An auxiliary verb that joins with the main verb to demonstrate commitment towards an event or person that a speaker holds. Eg: may, must, could
|A text that clearly has more than one purpose.
|The physical channel of communication: either speech or writing.
|A word describing something physical.
|Smallest grammatical unit
|A word to show you are doing something non-physical (E.g. Thinking)
|Two words that differ in only one sound
|Text that contains features of the spoken mode and the written mode
|Typical and normal characteristics of spoken language that interrupt the 'flow' of talk. Eg: Hesitations, False starts, Fillers, Repetitions etc.
|A word used for naming a person, place thing or idea.
|When you do not accept someone's face (turn your back when someone is speaking)
|A comment which, due to its lack of meaning relative to the comment it follows, is absurd to the point of being humorous or confusing.
|Signify a meaning through the use of sound. Eg: vrooom, brrrmmmm.
|The process of creating (coining) new words in a vocabulary
|When a word goes from being very broad to being very specific (E.g. 'girl' means young/ meant gender)
|Eg: The weather.
|One speaker talks at the same time as an other. Eg: possibly to reassure someone.
|A way of defining the difference between modes by arguing that they have completely different features.
|The study of the use of letters (Capitals, italics, fonts etc)
|Words that were commonly used in the past, but would sound old fashioned today.
|Pace / timing
|The process or art of regulating actions or remarks in relation to others to produce the best effect.
|Related to body language - it is the use of gestures, facial expressions + other non-verbal elements (such as laughter) to add meaning to the speakers message beyond the words being spoken.
|Conversational utterances that have no concrete purpose other than to establish or maintain personal personal relationships. Its related to small talk and follows traditional patterns. Eg: 'How are you?' / 'Fine', 'Cold isn't it?' / 'Freezing'.
|The degree of height or depth of a tone or of sound, depending upon the relative rapidity of the vibrations by which it is produced.
|Primary auxiliary verb
|An auxiliary verb that joins with the main verb to show tense Eg: be, do, have
|An approach to discourse analysis which focuses less on structures and more on contexts and purposes of people talking to each other.
|Includes features such as stress, rhythm, pitch, tempo and intonation - which are used by speakers to mark out key meanings in a message.
|Phonological manipulation (Playing with sounds)
|Creative changes in sound patterns for deliberate effect.
|Ways of maintaining a conversation to keep it going.
|Shows that you have possession of something.
|When words change over time to become more negative (E.g. 'gay')
|Place of articulation
|The physical location as to where sound is created Eg: lips, teeth etc.
|The name of a particular person, place, day or time of year. Always begins with a capital letter.
|Words to show the time and place.
|how sounds are produced
|When you accept people's face and act nice so they accept yours.
|A linguist that believes that language must follow rules and should stick to them
|the science of speech (sound system)
|The main and most recognisable purpose.
|The study of how meaning can be changed through changing volume, pace etc
|The portrayal of events, people, and circumstances through language and other meaning-making resources (E.g. images and sound) to create a way of seeing the world.
|Main unit of meaning
|A variety of language that is associated with a particular situation of use.
|Same as a false start.
|The framework that deals with meaning and how that is generated within texts
|A key characteristic of the time, place and contexts in which communication takes place.
|The matching of sound to an aspect of meaning.
|Repetition of fricat (ss, zzzz) sounds for effect.
|Situation of use
|A specific place, time, and context in which communication takes place.
|Words used for a particular topic to create a certain atmosphere.
|Words or phrases used only in conversion.
|Different words that have the same meaning.
|Variation in language use associated with members of a particular social group.
|An additional and more subtle purpose.
|The people interpreting a text.
|The people responsible for creating a text.
|Words that should not be used because they are rude and offensive.
|Words used by doctors, scientists and other specialists.
|A constructed image of an idealised reader.
|Words that are the name of particular products.
|Asking someone a question in conversation.
|The study of how things are written in text form.
|Words and phrases used only in written English.
|A group of words centred around a head verb. Can also contain auxiliary's
|The differences associated with particular instances of language use and between groups of language users.