|When two or more reactants join together to form one new substance.
|A molecule made of two or more elements.
|When or two reactants decompose into smaller substances.
|Acid + Base -> Salt + Water
|Acid + Carbonate -> Salt + Carbon Dioxide + Water
|Acid + Metal -> Salt + Hydrogen Gas
|Metal + Water + Oxygen -> Hydrated Metal Oxide
|When 2 solutions react together to form an insoluble salt. Equation: AB + CD -> AD + BC
|A process that leads to the transformation of a set of chemical substances to another.
|Measures how acidic or basic a substance is. 0-6 Acidic. 7 Neutral. 8-14 Basic.
|Fuel + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water
|A substance used to determine the pH level of another substance through colour. E.g. universal indicator, litmus, red cabbage
|Release thermal energy. May be explosive or spontaneous. E.g. Respiration, combustion.
|Absorb thermal energy. Reactants have less energy than products. E.g. photosynthesis, thermal decomposition.
|What the scientist chooses to manipulate. Can't be changed by anything else.
|Tested and measured in an experiment.
|Remains unchanged and constant.
|A long, tightly coiled molecule of DNA. Located in the nucleus of the cell.
|How many chromosome pairs are there?
|23 pairs. 46 Chromosomes.
|Unit that is found in a chromosome which codes for specific traits, proteins or acids.
|Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Molecule that genes are made of.
|Pairs with Adenine.
|Pairs with Cytosine.
|A variant form of a gene.
|Always expressed when present.
|Only expressed when homozygous.
|Both alleles are the same.
|Two different forms of the same gene.
|Physical expression of a genotype.
|Genetic makeup of a cell.
|Change in a gene, chromosome number or chromosome arrangement. e.g. cystic fibrosis, down syndrome
|1. Parental strands are unwinded. 2. Free nucleotides are used to construct new strands, parental strands used as template. 3. The new strands are rewinded.
|Why does DNA replication have to be exact?
|If not, it will result in a mutation.
|A way a cell can be reproduced. Splits to create two identical copies of the original cell.
|Splits to form new cells with half the number of chromosomes, produce gametes for sexual reproduction.
|Something that causes a mutation. E.g. gamma rays, UV rays
|Advantage of Mutation.
|Survival of human race, genetic diversity.
|Disadvantage of Mutation.
|Certain diseases, genetic disorders.
|The exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, especially the genetic manipulation of micro-organisms.
|The change in organisms over time.
|Evidence for Evolution.
|Fossils, similarities in living organisms, DNA and embryos.
|Better adapted organisms survive and reproduce more successfully, weaker organisms are bred out.
|Law of Superposition
|In any undisturbed sequence of rock layers, the youngest is on the top and the oldest at the bottom.
|Conditions for Fossil Formation
|Rapid burial, slow decay, sediments.
|Theory that the Earth's outer shell is divided into several plates that glide over the mantle.
|Where two plates intersect.
|Theory that continents are found on plates that continually move around the earth's surface.
|Sea Floor Spreading
|Theory that proposes the middle of the ocean is spreading apart.
|A mountain range formed underwater between two tectonic plates that are spreading apart.
|Where one tectonic plate is pushed downwards under another.
|Where oceanic and continental plates slide past each other.
|Fracture in rock where movement has occurred.
|When an originally horizontal rock bed has been bent or curved as a result of pressure
|Two plates move towards each other.
|Two plates move away from each other.
|Two plates slide past one another. Earthquakes are regular.
|Where two oceanic plates have met and been pushed downwards.
|A sudden movement of the earth's crust caused by the release of stress accumulated along geologic faults or by volcanic activity.
|The sudden occurrence of a violent discharge of steam and volcanic material.
|A low-pressure system that rotates inwards.
|Mercalli and Richter Scale difference.
|Mercalli measures based on observed effects. I to XII. Richter measures based on seismic waves. From 2.0 to 10.0+. A 3.0 earthquake is 10 times stronger than a 2.0 earthquake.
|Newton's First Law
|Any object will remain at rest or in constant motion unless acted on by an unbalanced motion.
|Newton's Second Law
|The change in motion produced by an unbalanced force depends on the force and the mass of the object.
|Newton's Third Law
|To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
|Speed and direction of motion.
|The change in the object's position in a straight line + direction.
|Change in velocity over time. Measured in ms-2
|How much ground an object has covered during its motion.
|An attractive force that acts between all objects that have mass.
|The amount of matter in an object. Measured in kilograms.
|A force that changed depending on gravity. Measured in Newtons.
|The study of celestial objects.
|Types of electromagnetic radiation
|Radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, gamma rays.
|A sun or star with a set of planets orbiting around it.
|Gravitationally bound group of stars.
|A large ball of gas that undergoes a nuclear reaction to produce its own energy.
|A large cloud of gas from which stars are formed.
|An instrument that magnifies an image of the sky.
|An object put into orbit around a planet or the sun by humans.
|The hot, dense core that remains after a small star has died.
|The stage of star's life when its helium core collapses.
|A region of space having a gravitational field so intense that no matter or radiation can escape.
|A huge explosion caused by the iron core collapsing.
|A celestial object, thought to be a rapidly rotating neutron star, that emits regular pulses of radio waves and other electromagnetic radiation.
|Birth of a Star
|1. A star is born in a nebula. 2. The nebula slowly contracts under its own gravity and a clump of matter forms inside the cloud. 3. The clump collapses inward, becomes more dense, gets compressed and heats up. 4. Nuclear reactions start. Hydrogen fuses with helium to make the star shine.
|Death of a Star
|1. Once the hydrogen is used up, the helium core collapses and the outer layer expands and cools. Becomes a Red Giant. 2. Depends on the size of the star.
|Death of Small Star
|After it becomes a red giant, its outer layer drfits away into space. It is now a white dwarf. It eventually cools and stops shining -> Black Dwarf.
|Death of a Massive Star
|After it becomes a red giant, nuclear reactions in the helium core continue and form other elements around an iron core. The iron core collapses and causes a supernova. A neutron star remains.
|Death of a Really Massive Star
|Nuclear reactions cause a supernova, it becomes a neutron star, then the neutron star collapses and becomes a black hole.