Science Revision - Year 10


Science revision for grade 10 yearly exam.
Caitlin Kumala
Flashcards by Caitlin Kumala, updated more than 1 year ago
Caitlin Kumala
Created by Caitlin Kumala over 8 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Composition Reaction When two or more reactants join together to form one new substance.
Compound A molecule made of two or more elements.
Decomposition Reaction When or two reactants decompose into smaller substances.
Neutralisation Acid + Base -> Salt + Water
Acid-Carbonate Reaction Acid + Carbonate -> Salt + Carbon Dioxide + Water
Acid-Metal Reaction Acid + Metal -> Salt + Hydrogen Gas
Corrosion/Rusting Metal + Water + Oxygen -> Hydrated Metal Oxide
Precipitation When 2 solutions react together to form an insoluble salt. Equation: AB + CD -> AD + BC
Chemical Reaction A process that leads to the transformation of a set of chemical substances to another.
pH scale Measures how acidic or basic a substance is. 0-6 Acidic. 7 Neutral. 8-14 Basic.
Combustion Fuel + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water
Indicator A substance used to determine the pH level of another substance through colour. E.g. universal indicator, litmus, red cabbage
Exothermic Reaction Release thermal energy. May be explosive or spontaneous. E.g. Respiration, combustion.
Endothermic Reaction Absorb thermal energy. Reactants have less energy than products. E.g. photosynthesis, thermal decomposition.
Independent Variable What the scientist chooses to manipulate. Can't be changed by anything else.
Dependent Variable Tested and measured in an experiment.
Controlled Variable Remains unchanged and constant.
Chromosome A long, tightly coiled molecule of DNA. Located in the nucleus of the cell.
How many chromosome pairs are there? 23 pairs. 46 Chromosomes.
Gene Unit that is found in a chromosome which codes for specific traits, proteins or acids.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Molecule that genes are made of.
Pairs with Adenine. Thymine.
Pairs with Cytosine. Guamine.
Allele A variant form of a gene.
Dominant Always expressed when present.
Recessive Only expressed when homozygous.
Homozygous Both alleles are the same.
Heterozygous Two different forms of the same gene.
Phenotype Physical expression of a genotype.
Genotype. Genetic makeup of a cell.
Mutation Change in a gene, chromosome number or chromosome arrangement. e.g. cystic fibrosis, down syndrome
DNA Replication 1. Parental strands are unwinded. 2. Free nucleotides are used to construct new strands, parental strands used as template. 3. The new strands are rewinded.
Why does DNA replication have to be exact? If not, it will result in a mutation.
Mitosis A way a cell can be reproduced. Splits to create two identical copies of the original cell.
Meiosis Splits to form new cells with half the number of chromosomes, produce gametes for sexual reproduction.
Mutagen Something that causes a mutation. E.g. gamma rays, UV rays
Advantage of Mutation. Survival of human race, genetic diversity.
Disadvantage of Mutation. Certain diseases, genetic disorders.
Biotechnology The exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, especially the genetic manipulation of micro-organisms.
Evolution The change in organisms over time.
Evidence for Evolution. Fossils, similarities in living organisms, DNA and embryos.
Natural Selection Better adapted organisms survive and reproduce more successfully, weaker organisms are bred out.
Law of Superposition In any undisturbed sequence of rock layers, the youngest is on the top and the oldest at the bottom.
Conditions for Fossil Formation Rapid burial, slow decay, sediments.
Plate Tectonics Theory that the Earth's outer shell is divided into several plates that glide over the mantle.
Plate Boundary Where two plates intersect.
Continental Drift Theory that continents are found on plates that continually move around the earth's surface.
Sea Floor Spreading Theory that proposes the middle of the ocean is spreading apart.
Mid-Ocean Ridge A mountain range formed underwater between two tectonic plates that are spreading apart.
Subduction Zone Where one tectonic plate is pushed downwards under another.
Strike-Slip Zone Where oceanic and continental plates slide past each other.
Fault Fracture in rock where movement has occurred.
Folding When an originally horizontal rock bed has been bent or curved as a result of pressure
Convergent Boundary Two plates move towards each other.
Divergent Boundary Two plates move away from each other.
Transform Fault Two plates slide past one another. Earthquakes are regular.
Trench Where two oceanic plates have met and been pushed downwards.
Earthquake A sudden movement of the earth's crust caused by the release of stress accumulated along geologic faults or by volcanic activity.
Volcanic Eruption The sudden occurrence of a violent discharge of steam and volcanic material.
Cyclone A low-pressure system that rotates inwards.
Mercalli and Richter Scale difference. Mercalli measures based on observed effects. I to XII. Richter measures based on seismic waves. From 2.0 to 10.0+. A 3.0 earthquake is 10 times stronger than a 2.0 earthquake.
Newton's First Law Any object will remain at rest or in constant motion unless acted on by an unbalanced motion.
Newton's Second Law The change in motion produced by an unbalanced force depends on the force and the mass of the object.
Newton's Third Law To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Velocity Speed and direction of motion.
Displacement The change in the object's position in a straight line + direction.
Acceleration Change in velocity over time. Measured in ms-2
Distance How much ground an object has covered during its motion.
Gravity An attractive force that acts between all objects that have mass.
Mass The amount of matter in an object. Measured in kilograms.
Weight A force that changed depending on gravity. Measured in Newtons.
Astronomy The study of celestial objects.
Types of electromagnetic radiation Radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, gamma rays.
Solar System A sun or star with a set of planets orbiting around it.
Galaxy Gravitationally bound group of stars.
Star A large ball of gas that undergoes a nuclear reaction to produce its own energy.
Nebula A large cloud of gas from which stars are formed.
Telescope An instrument that magnifies an image of the sky.
Artificial Satellite An object put into orbit around a planet or the sun by humans.
White Dwarf The hot, dense core that remains after a small star has died.
Red Giant The stage of star's life when its helium core collapses.
Black Hole A region of space having a gravitational field so intense that no matter or radiation can escape.
Supernova A huge explosion caused by the iron core collapsing.
Pulsar A celestial object, thought to be a rapidly rotating neutron star, that emits regular pulses of radio waves and other electromagnetic radiation.
Birth of a Star 1. A star is born in a nebula. 2. The nebula slowly contracts under its own gravity and a clump of matter forms inside the cloud. 3. The clump collapses inward, becomes more dense, gets compressed and heats up. 4. Nuclear reactions start. Hydrogen fuses with helium to make the star shine.
Death of a Star 1. Once the hydrogen is used up, the helium core collapses and the outer layer expands and cools. Becomes a Red Giant. 2. Depends on the size of the star.
Death of Small Star After it becomes a red giant, its outer layer drfits away into space. It is now a white dwarf. It eventually cools and stops shining -> Black Dwarf.
Death of a Massive Star After it becomes a red giant, nuclear reactions in the helium core continue and form other elements around an iron core. The iron core collapses and causes a supernova. A neutron star remains.
Death of a Really Massive Star Nuclear reactions cause a supernova, it becomes a neutron star, then the neutron star collapses and becomes a black hole.
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