Geography Tourism


AQA A specification GSCE GCP Geography book
Flashcards by lauramarypowell, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by lauramarypowell over 8 years ago

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Why are people having more holidays and longer holidays? 1)People have more disposable incomes (spare cash) than they used to, so can afford to go on more holidays. 2)Companies give more paid holidays than they used to. This means people have more free time, so go on holiday more. 3)Travel has become cheaper (particularly air travel) so more people can afford to go on holiday. 4)Holiday providers, e.g. tour companies and hotels, now use the internet to sell their products to people directly, which makes them cheaper. Again, this means more people can afford to go away.
Why are some areas also becoming more popular than they used to be? 1) Improvements in transport (e.g. more airports) have made it quicker and easier to get to places - no more week-long boat trips to Australia for a start. 2) Countries in more unusual tourist destinations like the Middle East and Africa have got better at marketing themselves as tourist attractions. This means people are more aware of them. 3) Many countries have invested in infrastructure for tourism (e.g. better hotels) to make them more attractive to visitors.
Why are cities a popular tourist destination? People are attracted to cities by the culture (e.g. museums, art galleries), entertainment (bars, restaurants, theatres) and shopping. Popular destinations include London, New York, Paris and Rome.
Why are the coasts popular tourist destinations? People are attracted to coastal areas by the beaches and activities like swimming, snorkelling, fishing and water skiing. Popular destinations include Spain, the Caribbean and Thailand.
Why are mountains popular tourist destinations? People are attracted to mountain areas by the beautiful scenery and activities like walking, climbing, skiing and snow boarding. Popular destinations include the Alps, the Dolomites and the Rockies.
Why is tourism important to the economies of many countries? 1) Tourism creates jobs for local people (e.g. in restaurants and hotels), which helps the economy to grow. 2) It also increases the income of other businesses that supply the tourism industry, e.g. farms that supply food to hotels. This also helps the economy to grow. 3) This means tourism is important to the economy of countries in both rich and poor parts of the world, e.g. tourism in France generated 35 billion euros in 2006 and created two million jobs. 4) Poorer countries tend to be more dependent on the income from tourism than richer ones, e.g. tourism contributes 3% of the UK's GNP, compared to 15% of Kenya's.
How does tourism make a big contribution to the UK economy? 1) There were 32 million visitors to Britain in 2008. 2) The UK is popular with tourists because of its countryside, historic landmarks (e.g. Big Ben and Stonehenge), famous churches and cathedrals (e.g. Saint Paul's cathedral), and its castles and palaces (e.g. Edinburgh Castle and Buckingham Palace). 3) London is particularly popular for its museums, theatres and shopping. It's the destination for half of all visitors to the UK. 4) In 2007, tourism contributed £114 billion to the economy and employed 1.4 million people.
What is a honeypot site? A honeypot site is a really popular area.
How does the weather affect the number of tourists visiting the UK? 1) Weather - bad weather can discourage tourists from visiting the UK, e.g. a really wet summer in 2007 was blamed for a drop in the number of overseas visitors.
How does the world economy affect the number of tourists visiting the UK? 1) World economy - in times of recession people tend to cut back on luxuries like holidays, so fewer overseas visitors come to the UK. It's not all bad though, as more UK citizens choose to holiday in the UK.
How does exchange rate affect the number of tourists visiting the UK? 1) Exchange rate - the value of the pound compared with other currencies affects the number of tourists. If it's low, the UK is cheaper to visit so more overseas visitors come.
How does terrorism and conflict affect the number of tourists visiting the UK? 1) Terrorism and conflict - wars and terrorist threats mean people are less willing to visit affected areas. Tourism fell sharply after the London bombings on 7th july 2005.
How do major events affect the number of tourists visiting the UK? 1) Major events - big events can attract huge numbers of people. E.g. Liverpool was European Capital of Culture in 2008 and as a result 3.5 million people visited that hadn't been before.
What are the stages of the Butler model? 1) Exploration. 2) Involvement. 3) Development. 4) Consolidation. 5) Stagnation. 6) Rejuvenation or Decline.
What is exploration? Exploration is the first stage of the Butler model. Small numbers of visitors are attracted to the area, e.g. by the scenery or culture. There aren't many tourist facilities.
What is involvement? Involvement is the second stage of the Butler model. Local people start providing facilities for the tourists, which attract more visitors.
What is development? Development is the third stage of the Butler model. More and more visitors come as more facilities are built. Control of tourism in the area passes from local to big companies.
What is consolidation? Consolidation is the fourth stage of the Butler model. Tourism is till a big part of the local economy, but tourist numbers are beginning to level off.
What is stagnation? Stagnation is the fifth stage of the Butler model. Visitor numbers have peaked. Facilities are no longer as good and tourists have had a negative impact on the local environment making the area less attractive to visit.
What is rejuvenation and decline? Rejuvenation or decline are the sixth stages of the Butler model. A tourist destination can either rejuvenate or decline. Rejuvenate - if the area is rejuvenated then more visitors will come as they're attracted by the new facilities. Decline - fewer visitors come as the area is less attractive. This leads to decline of the area as facilities shut or become run-down.
Where is the Lake District? The Lake District is a National Park in Cumbria.
Why is the Lake District a popular tourist destination? 1) Tourists come to enjoy the scenery - for example large lakes (e.g. Windermere) and mountains (e.g. Scafell Pike). 2) There are many activities available, e.g. bird watching, walking, pony-trekking, boat rides, sailing and rock-climbing. 3) There are also cultural attractions, e.g. the Beatrix Potter and Wordsworth museums.
How many tourists does the Lake District get each year? The Lake District National Park gets around 15 million visitors a year.
What is the strategy for coping with the extra traffic? 1) Coping with the extra traffic - public transport in the area is being improved so people can leave their cars at home. There are also campaigns to encourage people to use the new services, e.g. the 'Give the driver a break' campaign. This provides leaflets that show the routes available and offers discounts at cafes and on lake cruises for people presenting bus or train tickets.
What is the strategy for coping with the erosion of footpaths? 1) Coping with the erosion of footpaths - solutions include encouraging visitors to use less vulnerable areas instead, 'resting' popular routes by changing the line of the paths, and using more hard-wearing materials for paths. E.g. at Tarn Hows, severely eroded paths have been covered with soil and reseeded, and the main route has been gravelled to protect it.
What is the strategy for protecting wildlife and farmland? 1) Protecting wildlife and farmland - there are signs to remind visitors to take their litter home and covered bins are provided at the most popular sites. There have also been campaigns to encourage visitors to enjoy the countryside responsibly, e.g. by closing gates and keeping dogs on a lead.
What are the plans to make sure the Lake District keeps attracting tourists? 1) The official tourism strategy for Cumbria is to attract an extra two million visitors by 2018 and to increase the amount of tourists spend from £1.1 billion per year to £1.5 billion per year. 2) Public transport will be improved to make the Lakes even more accessible. 3) There's to be widespread advertising and marketing to make the area even more well known. 4) Farms will be encouraged to provide services like quad biking, clay pigeon shooting and archery alongside traditional farming - these should attract more tourists to the area. 5) Timeshare developments (where people share ownership of a property, but stay there at different times) are to be increased to bring people into the area all year round. 6) The strategy also aims to encourage tourism in areas outside the National Park, like the West Coast, Furness and Carlisle, to relieve some of the pressure on the main tourist areas, e.g. there are plans to regenerate ports like Whitehaven and Barrow to make them more attractive to visitors.
What is mass tourism? Mass tourism is organised tourism for large numbers of people. For example, visiting Spain on a package holiday would count as mass tourism. But, holidays where people organise it themselves or small group tours don't count.
What are the positive and negative economic impacts of mass tourism? 1) Positive: a) It brings money into the local economy. b) It creates jobs for local people, and increases the income of industries that supply tourism, e.g. farming. 2) Negative: a) A lot of the profit made from tourism is kept by the large travel companies, rather than going to the local economy.
What are the positive and negative social impacts of mass tourism? 1) Positive: a) Lots of jobs means young people are more likely to stay in the area. b) Improved roads, communications and infrastructure for tourists also benefit local people. c) Income from tourism can be reinvested in local community projects. 2) Negative: a) The tourism jobs available to locals are often badly paid and seasonal. b) Traffic congestion caused by tourists can inconvenience local people. c) The behaviour of some tourists can offend locals.
What are the positive and negative environmental impacts of mass tourism? 1) Positive: a) Income from tourism can be reinvested in protecting the environment, e.g. to run National Parks or pay for conservation work. 2) Negative: a) Transporting lots of people long distances releases lots of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. b) Tourism can increase litter and cause pollution, e.g. increased sewage can cause river pollution. c) Tourism can lead to the destruction of natural habitats, e.g. sightseeing boats can damage coral reefs.
What are the ways to reduce the negative impacts of mass tourism? 1) Improving public transport encourages tourists to use it, which reduces congestion and pollution. 2) Limiting the number of people visiting sensitive environments, e.g. coral reefs, reduces damage. 3) Providing lots of bins helps to reduce litter.
Why is it important that tourism should be maintained in areas that rely heavily on it? 1) Build new facilities or improve existing ones, e.g. build new hotels. 2) Reduce any tourist impacts that make the area less attractive, e.g. litter and traffic congestion. 3) Advertise & market the area to attract new tourists, e.g. use TV to advertise in other countries. 4) Improve transport infrastructure to make it quicker & easier to get to the area. 5) Offer new activities to attract tourists that don't normally go there. 6) Make it cheaper to visit, e.g. lower entrance fees to attractions.
Where is Kenya and how many visitors does it get each year? Kenya is in East Africa. It gets over 700000 visitors per year.
Why do people visit Kenya? 1) A fascinating tribal culture and lots of wildlife, including the 'big five' (rhino, lion, elephant, buffalo and leopard). Wildlife safaris are very popular. 2) A warm climate with sunshine all year round. 3) Beautiful scenery, including savannah, mountains, forests, beaches and coral reefs.
What are the positive and negative economic impacts of mass tourism in Kenya? 1) Positive: a) Tourism contributes 15% of the country's Gross National Product. b) In 2003, around 219000 people worked in the tourist industry. 2) Negative: a) Only 15% of the money earned through tourism goes to locals. The rest goes to big companies.
What are the positive and negative social impacts of mass tourism in Kenya? 1) Positive: a) The culture and customs of the native Maasai tribe are preserved because things like traditional dancing are often displayed for tourists. 2) Negative: a) Some Maasai tribespeople were forced off their land to create National Parks for tourists. b) Some Muslim people in Kenya are offended by the way female tourists dress.
What are the positive and negative environmental impacts of mass tourism in Kenya? 1) Positive: a) There are 23 National Parks in Kenya, e.g. Nairobi National Park. Tourists have to pay entry fees to get in. This money is used to maintain the National Parks, which help protect the environment and wildlife. 2) Negative: a) Safari vehicles have destroyed vegetation & caused soil erosion. b) Wild animals have been affected, e.g. cheetahs in the most heavily visited areas have changed their hunting behaviour to avoid the crowds. c) Coral reefs in the the Malindi Marine National Park have been damaged by tourist boats anchoring.
How is Kenya trying reduce the negative impacts of tourism? 1) Walking or horseback tours are being promoted over vehicle safaris, to preserve vegetation. 2) Alternative activities that are less damaging than safaris are also being encouraged, e.g. climbing and white water rafting.
How is Kenya trying to maintain tourism? 1) Kenya's Tourist Board and Ministry of Tourism have launched an advertising campaign in Russia called 'Magical Kenya'. 2) Kenya Wildlife Service is planning to build airstrips in Ruma National Park and Mount Elgon National Park to make them more accessible for tourists. It also plans to spend £8 million improving roads, bridges and airstrips to improve accessibility. 3) Visa fees for adults were cut by 50% in 2009 to make it cheaper to visit the country. They were also scrapped for children under 16 to encourage more families to visit.
Why are tourists attracted to extreme environments? 1) They're ideal setting for adventure holiday activities like jeep tours, river rafting and trekking. 2) Some people want something different and exciting to do on holiday, which nobody else they know has done. 3) A lot of people enjoy an element of risk and danger in their leisure time, which the harsh conditions of an extreme environment can provide. 4) Some wildlife can only be seen in these areas, e.g. polar bears can only be seen in the Arctic. 5) Some scenery can only be seen in extreme places too, e.g. icebergs can only be seen in very cold environments.
Why is tourism increasing in extreme environments? 1) Improvements in transport have made it quicker and easier to get to some of these destinations. For example, the Qinghai-Tibet railways that links China and Tibet (an extreme mountain environment) opened in 2006. This increased tourism as Tibet was easier to get to. 2) People are keen to see places like Antarctica for themselves while they have the chance, before the ice melts due to global warming. 3) Tourism to extreme environments is quite expensive, but people nowadays tend to have more disposable income (spare cash), so more people can afford to go. 4) Adventure holidays are becoming more popular because of TV programmes & advertising.
How can tourism damage the environment use the Himalayas as an example? 1) Trees are cut down to provide fuel for trekkers and other tourists, leading to deforestation. 2) Deforestation destroys habitats. 3) Deforestation also means there are fewer trees to intercept rain. So more water reaches channels causing flooding. 4) Tree roots normally hold the soil together, so deforestation also leads to soil erosion. If soil is washed into rivers it raises the river bed so it can't hold as much water - this can cause flooding too. 5) The sheer volume of tourists causes footpath erosion, which can lead to landslides. 6) Toilets are poor or non-existent, so rivers become polluted by sewage.
Where is Antarctica? 1) Antarctica is a continent at the Earth's South Pole. It covers an area of about 14 million kilometres squared and about 98% is covered with ice. Antarctica is the coldest place on Earth (it can get to minus 80 degrees celcius), making it an extreme environment.
Why is tourism increasing in Antarctica and how much is it increasing? 1) The number of tourists visiting Antarctica each year is rising, e.g. there were 7413 in the 1996/1997 season, but 46000 in the 2007/2008 season. 2) Tourists are attracted by the stunning scenery (e.g. icebergs) and the wildlife (e.g. penguins and whales).
How has tourism had environmental impacts in Antarctica? Antarctica is very cold & doesn't get much sunshine in winter so the land ecosystems are very fragile - it takes a long time for them to recover from damage. The sea ecosystem is also delicately balanced. This means that tourists can have a massive impact on the environment there: 1) Tourists can trample plants, disturb wildlife and drop litter. 2) There are fears that tourists could accidentally introduce non-native species or diseases that could wipe out existing species. 3) Spillage of fuel from ships is also a worry especially after the sinking cruise ship, MS explorer, in 2007. Fuel spills kill molluscs (e.g. mussels) and fish, as well as the birds that feed on them (e.g. penguins).
Why do people go to Antarctica? 1) To experience it before global warming changes it forever. 2) Snow - extreme climate - challenge (-89.2 degrees celcius lowest temperature recorded in Vostock). 3) Unique wildlife, plant and scenery (99% is covered with ice, has volcanoes and mountains). 4) To see penguins in their natural habitat and see their natural behaviour.
What are the risks to Antarctica? 1) Tourist numbers are booming in 15 years (from 1992-93 to 2007-8). There was a 37,000 increase from 9,000 to 46,000 tourists. 2) Over 100 companies are involved in tourism. 3) There is a risk as a few docking areas are turning to honey pot sites. 4) Litter takes hundreds of years to decompose due to low temperatures. 5) Feeding/breeding patterns disrupted by tourism resulting in a falling populations. 6) Krill are the start of most food chains and oil spills from cruise boats affect the food web resulting in falling populations. 7) Oil spills/pollution from cruise ships kill off penguins.
What are the attempts that have been made in Antarctica to be more sustainable? 1) IAATO (International Association of Tour Operators) limit passengers to 500 per ship. 2) They educate tourists not to get too close to wildlife etc…. but it's not a law so some people don't abide by it. 3) SSSI (Site of Special Scientific Interest) gives recognition and gives restrictions to protect plants/ animals and no tourists are allowed in them or near them. 4) 1961 Antarctic treaty - 27 countries with territories agreed not to use Antarctica as a military base, nuclear bomb and bomb testing. To only use it for peaceful purposes e.g. scientific research.
What is the Antarctic Treaty and how is it being used as a measure to protect Antarctica? 1) The Antarctic Treaty is an international agreement that came into force in 1961 and has now been signed by 47 countries. The Treaty is designed to protect and conserve the area and its plant and animal life. In april 2009, the parties involved with the Antarctic Treaty agreed to introduce new limits on tourism in Antarctica - only ships with fewer than 500 passengers are allowed to land there and a maximum of 100 passengers are allowed on shore at a time.
The International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators has a separate code of conduct, what are the rules of this code on? The International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators also has a separate Code of Conduct. The code is voluntary, but most operators in the area do stick to it. The rules are on: 1) Specially Protected Areas - these are off limits to tourists. 2) Wildlife - wildlife must not be disturbed when being observed. E.g. when whale watching, boats should approach animals slowly and keep their distance. 3) Litter - nothing can be left behind by tourists and there must be no smoking during shore landings (to reduce cigarette end litter). 4) Supervision - tourists must stay with their group and each group must have a qualified guide. This prevents people from entering no-go areas or disturbing wildlife. 5) Plant life - tourists must not walk on fragile plant life. 6) Waste - sewage must be treated biologically and other waste stored on board the ship.
Why do people go to Kenya on holiday? (mass tourism case study) The unique wildlife including the: 1) Big 5 (rhino, lion, elephant, buffalo and leopard). 2) Beautiful white sandy beaches. 3) Coral reefs and sea turtles. 4) Mountains, including Mt Kenya. 5) Warm climate. 6) Unique culture, e.g. Massai.
What do people go to Kenya with? (Mass Tourism Case Study) Package holidays (often all inclusive) will involve a week on a beach near Mombassa, and a week safari involved in national parks e.g. Massai Mara.
What are the economic problems of mass tourism in Kenya? (Mass Tourism Case Study). 1) Due to the all inclusive package, little money leaves the hotel complex so it isn't benefitting locals. 2) Most profit goes to the MEDC/multinational companies e.g. 'Thompson holidays' who organise the package.
What are the environmental problems involving coral reefs, sea turtles and safari trucks? 1) Coral Reefs - destroyed by dropping anchors and tourists breaking bits off for souvenirs. 2) Sea Turtles - numbers are dwindling as nests destroyed by parasols. Also rubbish left on beaches is an obstacle to hatchlings reaching the safety of the sea. 3) Safari - breeding patterns are disrupted by 4x4 tour vehicles - soil erosion by 4x4.
What are the environmental problems with the Massai? 1) The Maasai traditionally are nomadic. Since the designation of National Parks their movement with cattle is restricted as they are not allowed to graze within them. They are now semi-nomadic or static. They have become a tourist attraction, performing traditional song/dance trinkets. 2) They are exploited - Maasai culture is exploited because they are made to dance and sing and show their houses to tourists. 3) Bus drivers take the tourists to the Maasai and make the Maasai give them most of the money the tourists give them.
What is ecotourism? Ecotourism is tourism that doesn't harm the environment and benefits the local people.
What does ecotourism involve? 1) Ecotourism involves: a) conservation - protecting & managing the environment. b) Stewardship - taking responsibility for conserving the environment. 2) Ideally, conservation and stewardship should involve local people and local organisations, so that local people benefit from the tourists. 3) Ecotourism is usually a small-scale activity, with only small numbers of visitors going to an area at a time. This helps to keep the environmental impact of tourism low. 4) It often involves activities like wildlife viewing and walking.
What are the environmental benefits of ecotourism? 1) Local people are encouraged to conserve the environment rather than use it for activities that can be damaging, e.g. logging or farming. This is because they can only earn money from ecotourism if the environment isn't damaged. 2) It reduces poaching and hunting of endangered species, since locals will benefit more from protecting these species for tourism than if they killed them. 3) Ecotourism projects try to reduce the use of fossil fuels, e.g. by using renewable energy sources and local food (which isn't transported as far so less fossil fuel is used). Using less fossil fuel is better for the environment as burning fossil fuels adds to global warming. 4) Waste that tourists create is disposed of carefully to prevent pollution.
What are the economic benefits of ecotourism? 1) Ecotourism creates jobs for local people (e.g. as guides or in tourist lodges), which helps the local economy grow. 2) Local people not directly employed in tourism can also make money by selling local crafts to visitors or supplying the tourist industry with goods, e.g. food.
What are the benefits of ecotourism for local people? 1) People have better & more stable incomes in ecotourism that in other jobs, e.g. farming. 2) Many ecotourism schemes fund community projects, e.g. schools, water tanks and health centres.
How does ecotourism help the sustainable development of areas? 1) Sustainable development means improving the quality of life for people, but doing it in a way that doesn't stop people in the future getting what they need (by not damaging the environment or depleting resources). 2) Ecotourism helps areas to develop by increasing the quality of life for local people - the profits from ecotourism can be used to build schools or healthcare facilities. 3) The development is sustainable because it's done without damaging the environment - without ecotourism people may have to make a living to improve their by doing something that harms the environment e.g. cutting down trees.
What has happened in Kenya to the Masai tribe over the years and what are the environmental benefit from it? (Ecotourism case study). Three-quarters of the wildlife in Kenya is found outside the game parks, much of it on land owned by the Masai. In colonial times the Masai were driven off their traditional land to make way for wild animals in the parks. The Masai were seen as a nuisance. Now the vegetation if healthier, wildlife is mrs plentiful outside the parks than before, and the tourist potential of Masai land has increased.
What are the economic benefits of the camps set up on Masai land? (Ecotourism Case Study). Three tented camps, owned and run by Kenyans, have been set up in Kimana on an important migration corridor for wildlife between Amboseli and Tsavo National Parks. The Masai are paid a rent for use of their land about £1000 per year. The Kenya Tourist Boards support the extension of small-scale camps outside game reserves. Close to the entrance of the Mara Park, 156 Masai have joined their plots together. In return for not grazing their cows & chopping down wood, they rent their land out for a number of tented camps and ecolodges in the Olare Orok complex. Each Masai landowner receives about £70 a month from the owners. Some young Masai men make money as tourist guides. Masai communities involved in ecotourism are financially better off.
What are the social benefits of ecotourism in Kenya? (Ecotourism Case Study). The social benefits are more children being sent to school and better healthcare. However, some are said to be wasting their income on alcohol. Most adult Masai are unable to read and write, which leaves them vulnerable to cheating tour operators with contracts and leases so having schools to teach the children mean they are less likely to be cheated.
Why is ecotourism not extremely successful with the Masai? (Ecotourism Case Study). Outside the tourist camps, the Masai need to carry on with their traditional way of life, planting crops and keeping cattle, activities that do not fit well with encouraging wildlife. Until more of them can be convinced of the benefits of tourism, the living space for wildlife will continue to shrink.
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