|Where was Adolf Hitler from and when did he gain German citizenship?
|He was from Austria and did not get German citizenship until 1932
|What was Hitler's attitude to Germany's defeat in 1918?
|Very angry - agreed with 'stab in the back' myth Strongly anti-Semitic
|Where did the NSDAP come from?
|Anton Drexler's German Workers' Party was its precursor Became the NSDAP after Hitler infiltrated it, then later became its chairman
|What were the 5 main things that Hitler did for the party in the early 1920s?
|1 - Published the 25-point programme, 1920 2 - Changed name to NSDAP 3 - Party newspaper called the People's Observer launched in 1920 4 - Network of party branches established 5 - Formed the SA 'Stormtroopers'; paramilitary unit from 1921
|What happened to Hitler after the Munich Putsch?
|Only sentenced to 5 years' imprisonment, although he was released after 9 months Sent to Landsberg prison, which was actually quite accommodating
|What happened to the NSDAP while Hitler was in prison?
|Bickering broke out between the Hitler-loyalists and the anti-capitalist north German wing within the party
|When was Hitler released from prison, and what did he do at the Bamberg Conference in 1926?
|Released early 1925 Asserted his authority over the party at Bamberg - tightened his leadership by imposing the 'Fuhrerprinzip'
|How did Hitler's attitude towards politics change after his release from prison? Where did this change stem from?
|Abandoned violent means of gaining power - he adopted the strategy of legality Stemmed from his time in prison; ideas in his book 'Mein Kampf'
|How did Hitler reorganise the NSDAP?
|-Organised 35 regions, called a 'Gaue' which was headed by a Gauleiter -SA created -Nazi organisations, e.g. Hitler Youth -Propaganda -Party rallies -Focused on specific groups, e.g. agriculture
|What were the 4 main ideologies of the Nazi Party?
|Ultra-nationalism Racism Authoritarianism Anti-capitalism
|Explain the Nazi ideology of ultra-nationalism
|Derived from Social Darwinist theory Revision of TOV Creation of 'Greater Germany' Expansion to the east, at the expense of Soviet Russia
|Explain the Nazi ideology of racism
|Some racial groups superior to others Top of racial hierarchy was the Aryan race; Slavs at the bottom and viewed as sub-human Jews, blacks and gypsies also resented
|Explain the Nazi ideology of authoritarianism
|Democracy was an impediment to national unity Germany had to be ruled in an unsentimental manner by an all-powerful leader
|Explain the Nazi ideology of anti-capitalism
|Hostile to big businesses Leading anti-capitalists included Gregor Strasser and SA boss Rohm Wanted to help Mittlestand and agriculture Hitler never took anti-capitalist dimension of Nazism seriously though
|How well did the NSDAP do in votes up to 1928?
|Not very well; only won 12 seats in the 1928 election
|What major factor contributed to the Nazi electoral breakthrough in the later 1920s-early 1930s?
|The Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the economic slump
|What happened in Germany after the Wall Street Crash?
|US loans called back - some banks in Germany collapsed Prices fell High unemployment - reached 6 million in 1932 Business failures, falling output, short-time working and wage cuts Intense pressure on gov finances
|Which areas were worst affected by the economic slump?
|Heavy industry, e.g the Ruhr and Hamburg
|Who voted and who did not vote for the Nazi Party after 1929?
|Catholics resistant to Nazism SPD retained hold on working class Middle-classes defected to Nazis DNVP lost support to Nazis
|What was the electoral geography of the Nazi vote after 1929?
|Weaker in Catholic regions, e.g. Bavaria and the Rhineland Attracted working class voters in Berlin Support stronger in Protestant parts of Germany
|Why did some of the middle and upper classes vote Nazi in the early 1930s?
|They were disillusioned with the Republic Fear of communism, especially as the KPD vote had nearly doubled between 1928-1932
|Why did some of the working classes vote Nazi in the early 1930s?
|Enthused by Nazi promise of national revival and impressed by vow to provide 'work and bread' Generally self-employed or non-unionised employees
|Give a summary of the yes and no voters of the Nazi party
|Yes: Small tows and rural Protestant Northern Germany Middle and upper-class Some working class No: Unemployed (turned to KPD) Catholics Some working class
|What did the SPD and KPD offer, in comparison with other political parties, which led to their high success in elections?
|Offered cultural and leisure opportunities as well as welfare provisions
|Give some examples of Nazi promises
|Farmers - protect against food imports from abroad Pensioners - increased benefits Unemployed - massive job-creation scheme Businessmen - proper rewards for enterprise
|What did Thomas Childers described the Nazi Party as in 1983?
|A 'catch-all party of protest'
|How did the Nazi Party organise itself in order to focus on different social groups?
|Hired civil servants, factory workers and ex-servicemen such as R.W. Darres to target the rural vote
|Who was Josef Goebbels and what did he do?
|He was the Nazi propaganda minister from 1930 onwards Organised rallies, parades and processions
|Describe the Nazi electoral breakthrough statistics, 1928-1933
|1928 - 2.6% 1930 - 18.3% 1932 (July) - 37.4% 1932 (November) 33.1% 1933 (March) - 43.9%
|Why did Muller's Grand Coalition break down in 1930?
|Budget deficit from Great Depression Non-socialist parties favoured cuts in unemployment benefit, but SPD disagreed
|How did the extremist parties do after the breakdown of the Grand Coalition?
|NSDAP and KPD made significant gains The 4 democratic parties no longer held a majority in the Reichstag
|What is meant by 'presidential government' in early 1930s' Germany?
|The anti-Republican right was effectively back in control after the elections which saw the moderate parties losing support
|What did the President increasingly use to rule the country?
|Article 48 - the power to rule by decree
|Who was part of Hindenburg's 'camarilla'?
|General von Schleicher Oskar and Otto Meissner
|Who was the Chancellor between March 1930 and May 1932?
|How did the Reichstag become increasingly marginalised under Bruning?
|Days in session decreased from 94 to 13 by 1932 Number of laws passed by Reichstag decreased from 98 to 5 by 1932 Number of decrees issued increased from 5 to 66 by 1932
|During Bruning's Chancellorship, how were the Nazis doing in the Reichstag?
|Only had 107 seats - no decisive leverage Hindenburg dismissed them as hooligans and Hitler as 'the Austrian corporal'
|What was Bruning's thinking on the state of the economy?
|That it would recover on its own - he was only concerned with making sure Germany did not go bankrupt
|How did Bruning seek to reduce the budget deficit?
|Increase taxes Cut public spending, including welfare benefits
|Who received preferential treatment under Bruning?
|Junkers - generous agricultural subsidies through 'eastern aid' scheme Army - spending not cut
|Why was Bruning soon dismissed in May 1930?
|He was working on a scheme to buy up insolvent Junker estates and settle the unemployed workers on them Junkers outraged - complained that Bruning was an 'agrarian Bolshevik'
|What happened at the March 1932 Presidential election?
|Hitler stood against Hindenburg and deprived him of a majority in the first ballot, forcing a second Hindenburg won by 19 million, although Hitler had 13 million votes from the right-wing
|Why did Hindenburg's closest adviser, von Schleicher, attempt to 'woo' Hitler?
|Aimed to sideline Reichstag completely, but needed the Nazis to provide an appearance of mass support so it did not look like he was imposing authoritarian rule against the will of the German population
|How did Schleicher attempt to 'woo' Hitler?
|-von Papen installed as Chancellor with far right ministers - Cabinet of Barons -Ban on SA lifted -Reichstag election called to give Nazis the opportunity to strengthen their electoral base -von Papen deposed SD state gov of Prussia, which had been an opponent of Nazism
|What was the result of the July 1932 elections for the Nazi Party?
|Won 37.4% of the vote - effectively the largest party in the Reichstag
|Why did Hitler refuse to serve under von Papen?
|He demanded the Chancellorship for himself - Hindenburg sent him packing
|What did Hitler do in response to Hindenburg's refusal to give him the Chancellorship?
|Ordered Nazi delegates in the Reichstag to pass a vote of no confidence in von Papen's government, and force another election
|How did Hitler's actions pan out in the November 1932 election?
|The move backfired - Nazi Party had 2 million less votes than the July election Defectors included right-wingers who saw Hitler's move as a selfish refusal to work under von Papen
|What did von Papen try and persuade Hindenburg to do after the November election, and how did Schleicher respond?
|Tried to persuade Hindenburg to create a 'New State' and give him dictatorial powers as Chancellor Schleicher saw no further use for von Papen and talked Hindenburg into dismissing him, saying it was what the army wanted
|When did Schleicher become Chancellor and what was his main problem?
|December 1932 He was short of allies and had little support in the country at large
|What controversial move did Schleicher make towards the Nazi Party?
|He offered Gregor Strasser the Vice-Chancellorship, but this move failed as it became apparent that the Nazi Party was not easily split
|Who was involved in secret talks in January 1933? What did each of them want?
|Hitler, von Papen and Hindenburg Hitler - revenge at attempt to split Nazi Party (and power, of course) von Papen - way back into the office, on the Nazi Party's back Hindenburg - von Papen back alongside him
|What agreement was reached in January 1933 after the secret talks?
|Hitler became Chancellor with von Papen as the Vice-Chancellor Papen & Hindenburg thought they could control Hitler
|How powerful was Hitler when he became Chancellor in January 1933?
|Not very - only 230 out of 584 seats in Reichstag, so 63 short of majority Dependent on Hindenburg Only 3 out of 12 cabinet ministers were Nazis
|What was Hitler's aim in the March 1933 election?
|He did not just want an overall majority - he wanted the two-thirds majority required to make amendments to the 1919 Constitution
|During the course of the 5-week election campaign, how many were killed due to the Nazi tactic of violence and intimidation?
|69 people murdered
|What what Goering's police order on 17th February 1933?
|Warned policemen that they would face disciplinary action if they failed to open fire on anyone involved in 'communist terrorist acts'
|What did Goering do on February 22nd, in regards to the SA and the police force?
|Enrolled SA members as special constables Recruited 50,000 auxiliary policemen, mostly from the SA (For 'maintaining order', but in reality, it was to legalise Nazi thuggery)
|What happened on February 27th?
|The Reichstag fire, supposedly started by a Dutch communist (van der Lubbe)
|How did Hitler respond to the Reichstag Fire?
|February 28th (day after), passed Decree for the Protection of the People and the State KPD outlawed and basic rights under 1919 Constitution were suspended indefinitely
|What happened in the March 1933 election?
|Disappointing for the Nazis - only won 44% of the vote
|How was the election result more favourable to the Nazi Party than it may appear?
|KPD was outlawed so 81 deputies could not take their seats DNVP was allied to the NSDAP, so 52 seats added to Nazi total Nazi-DNVP bloc therefore controlled 340 out of 647 seats
|Was Hitler able to amend the 1919 Constitution after March 1933?
|No - 92 seats short of a two-thirds majority
|When was the Enabling Law passed and by how many votes?
|March 23rd 1933 Passed 444-94
|What was the aim of the Enabling Law?
|Introduce laws and amend the Constitution without the President's or Reichstag's approval Germany turned into dictatorship ruled by Hitler
|Why did the Centre Party decide to support the Enabling Law?
|Freedom of worship, preservation of Catholic schools and youth movements
|How did the Nazis take further steps to tighten their control in spring-summer of 1933?
|-Political parties banned; SPD in June -Trade unions broken up in May, premises occupied and leaders arrested -Lander Law passed in April; Reich Commissioners to run the states -Law for the Restoration of the Civil Service (April) -Police chiefs hostile to Nazis dismissed -Communist and SPD newspapers closed down
|How was violence and terror used to further tighten Nazi control of Germany?
|SA acted on own initiative Victims were the political left and Jews Individuals beaten, arrested, killed Makeshift camps set up by SA - later replaced by concentration camps run by Himmler's SS 80 camps based Dachau model
|Give 2 examples of Nazi-inspired violence
|1) Bloody Sunday, June 1932 - 18 killed in SA-Communist clashes 2) Potempa Incident, August 1932 - young communist beaten to death in front of his family
|How did Hitler respond to the SA's rampages?
|Stopped the rampages due to loud protests Shut down their 'wild camps'