GCSE AQA Biology - Unit 3


The Time of the Biologist - Orbiting a quiet backwater planet, the massed forces of the universe's deadliest species gather, drawn to a mysterious message that echoes out to the stars - among them, the Biologist. Rescuing Blara from a family Biololimas dinner, the Science Lord and his companion must learn what this enigmatic signal means for his own fate and that of the universe.
James Jolliffe
Flashcards by James Jolliffe, updated more than 1 year ago
James Jolliffe
Created by James Jolliffe about 9 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is osmosis? The diffusion of water from a dilute solution to a more concentration solution through a partially permeable membrane
What is active transport? Against a concentration gradient LOW --> HIGH This requires ENERGY! Active transport allows cells to absorb sugar and ions, which can pass through cell membranes, from very dilute solutions.
What features make exchanges surfaces efficient? A large surface area. Being thin, providing a short diffusion path. Having an efficient blood supply (in animals). Being ventilated (in animals) for gas exchange.
Where do villi line the walls of? The small intestine
What do villi have (features)? A massive surface area for exchanging materials across. An extensive network of blood capillaries to absorb the products of digestion by diffusion and active transport.
Where is the breathing system located? In your thorax. (The upper half of your body)
Fill in the missing words: The breathing system takes air into and out of your body so that _____________ from the air can diffuse into your blood and _______________ can diffuse from your blood into the air. Oxygen Carbon Dioxide
What does the trachea have rings of to prevent it from collapsing? Cartilage
Fill in the missing words: The trachea divides into two tubes (the _______). The _______ divide to form ___________. The ___________ divide until they end in air sacs called _______ (there are millions of these). Bronchi Bronchi + Bronchioles Bronchioles + Alveoli
What is ventilation? The movement of air into and out of your lungs.
Fill in the missing words: When you breathe in, your ribcage moves __ and ____ and your diaphragm ________. When you breathe out, your ribcage moves __ and ____ and your diaphragm moves ____. Up, Out and Flattens In, Down and Up.
What are the tiny holes on the leaves of plants called? Stomata
What is transpiration? The movement of water through a plant.
What does your circulatory system consist of? Your Heart, your Blood Vessels and your Blood.
What does Oxygenated blood provide? Glucose and Oxygen to cells.
What does Deoxygenated Blood take away? Waste Products (including Carbon Dioxide)
When does blood pass through the Heart? (The TWO occasions) 1. To carry blood from your heart to your lungs and then back to your heart. 2. The carry blood from your heart to all other organs then back to your heart.
What are the four chambers in your heart? Left Atria = Deoxygenated blood in from vena cava Right Atria = Oxygenated blood in from pulmonary vein Left Ventricle = Oxygenated blood out to aorta Right Ventricle = Deoxygenated blood out to pulmonary artery
What makes sure that blood flows in the right direction? Valves
Arteries - What do they do? - Features Take blood from your heart to your organs. Have thick walls made from muscle and elastic fibres. Stents can be inserted if they become too narrow.
Veins - What do they do? - Features Take blood from your organs to your heart. Have thinner walls and valves to prevent backflow.
Capillaries - What do they do? - Features Allow substances needed by the cells to pass out of the blood. Allow substances produced by the cells to pass into the blood. Are narrow, thin-walled blood vessels.
Is Blood a tissue, organ or organ system? Tissue
What are the four components of Blood? Plasma Red Blood Cells White Blood cells Platelets
What is Plasma? A straw-coloured liquid that transports: - CO2 from your organs to your lungs. - The soluble products of digestion from the small intestine to your organs. - Other waste products from your liver to your kidneys.
What are Red Blood Cells? - Transport oxygen from your lungs to the organs. - Don't have a nucleus. - Are packed full of the red pigment haemoglobin.
What are White Blood cells? - Have a nucleus - Are suspended in the plasma - Form part of your body's defence system against pathogens.
What are Platelets? - Small fragments of cells. - Don't have a nucleus. - Help Blood to clot if you have a wound.
What does Xylem tissue do? Transport water and mineral ions from roots to the stem and leaves.
What does Phloem tissue do? Carry dissolved sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant, including growing regions and the storage organs.
What does Homeostatis mean? Keeping your internal environment constant. It includes monitoring and controlling; -Waste materials - Body temperature - Water and ion content - Blood Glucose levels
What should your body temperature be kept to? 37°C
What does the thermoregulatory centre in your brain do? Monitor and control body temperature.
What does the thermoregulatory centre in your brain have? Receptors that monitor the temperature of the blood flowing through the brain.
What does the thermoregulatory centre in your brain receive? Information (impulses) from temperature receptors in your skin.
What happens if your core body temperature is too high? - Blood vessels supplying skin capillaries dilate (widen) to increase blood flow and heat loss. - Sweat glands release more sweat, which cools the skin as it evaporates.
What happens if your core body temperature gets too low? - Blood vessels supplying skin capillaries constrict (narrow) to reduce blood flow and heat loss. - Muscles start to shiver, causing heat energy to be released by respiration in cells.
What do the kidneys maintain? The concentrations of dissolved substances in the blood
What three processes occur when blood vessels carry blood through the kidneys? Ultra filtration Selective reabsorbtion Excretion of waste
Explain what happens as blood flows through a dialysis machine (The 3 steps) 1. The blood is separated from the dialysis fluid by partially permeable membranes. 2. The membranes allow urea, and any excess substances, to pass from the blood into the dialysis fluid. 3. Concentrations of dissolved substances in the blood are restored to their normal levels.
What can you do to prevent the rejection of a transplanted kidney? 1. A donor kidney with a 'tissue-type' similar to that of the recipient is used. 2. The recipient is treated with drugs that suppress the immune system.
What does the Pancreas: - Monitor and control? - Excrete? Blood sugar levels The hormone Insulin
What does insulin convert glucose into? Glycogen
What is used to convert PREVIOUS ANSWER back into glucose? Glucagon
Explain what is meant by: 'Carbon dioxide can be sequestered in oceans, lakes and ponds' It is taken from the atmosphere and stored in the water.
What has been the effect of deforestation? - Increased levels of CO2 in atmosphere - Reduced the rate at which carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis - Increased the amount of methane in the atmosphere
How is Biogas produced? Anaerobic Respiration/Fermentation
What does biogas largely consist of? Methane
The distances that food travels from where it is grown to where it is bought are called... Food Miles
What is Mycoprotein? A protein-rich food suitable for vegetarians made bu using Fusarium, a type of fungus.
How does the fungus grow? - In a fermenter. - On glucose syrup. - In anaerobic conditions.
Fill in the missing words: Urea is made in the _________, by the breakdown of ____________________. Urea is temporarily stored in the __________. Liver Amino Acids Bladder
What may happen if the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin? What is this condition called? A person's blood sugar levels may rise to a high level. This is called 'Type 1 Diabetes'.
Where is glycogen stored? In the liver.
Where is glucagon made? In the pancreas.
Describe what there is (and what happens in) an industrial fermenter (which is used to produce mycoprotein)... The nutrient medium (glucose syrup) and microorganisms (fungus) are passed into the fermenter. There is a stirrer to keep the microorganisms in suspension and maintain an even temperature. There is also a water-cooled jacket to remove heat produced by the respiring microorganisms. On top of this, there is a temperature and pH probe, as well as an air supply, to provide oxygen for the microorganisms to respire. Finally, there is an outlet tap, to collect the products.
List four reasons why there is less land available for plants and animals... - Farming - Quarrying - Building - Dumping waste
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