|equation for pH
|- log [H+]
|How to work out [H+] from pH
|10 ^ -pH
|Bronsted - Lowry Acid Definition
|A proton donor
|Bronsted - Lowry Base Definition
|A proton acceptor
|Strong Acid Definition
|An acid which completely dissociates in aqueous solution
|Weak Acid Definition
|An acid which only partially dissociates in aqueous solution
|Ka (Acid Dissociation Constant)
|Units for Ka
|mol dm ^ -3
|A large Ka indicates what?
|A large extent of dissociation, therefore the acid is strong
|A small Ka indicates what?
|A small extent of dissociation, therefore the acid is weak
|equation for pKa
|How to work out Ka from pKa
|10 ^ -pKa
|The smaller the value of pKa ...
|... the stronger the acid
|equation for Kw (ionic product of water)
|[H+] x [OH-]
|At 25 degree Celsius, the value of Kw is
|1.00 x 10 ^ -14
|Units for Kw
|mol ^ 2 dm ^ -3
|A mixture which minimises pH changes on the addition of small amounts of acid or base
|What is an acidic buffer solution made of?
|A weak acid and a salt of the weak acid e.g ethanoic acid and sodium ethanoate
|What is an alkaline buffer solution made of?
|A weak base and a salt of the weak base e.g ammonia and ammonium chloride