Solutions

Description

Undergraduate Chem 1006 Flashcards on Solutions , created by Andrea Smith on 01/02/2015.
Andrea Smith
Flashcards by Andrea Smith, updated more than 1 year ago
Andrea Smith
Created by Andrea Smith almost 9 years ago
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Resource summary

Question Answer
Intermolecular Forces Forces that exist between molecules
Intramolecular Forces Forces that exist within molecules
Melting Solid to liquid phase change
Boiling/Vaporization Liquid to Gas phase change
Sublimation Solid to gas phase change
Freezing Liquid to solid phase change
Condensation Gas to liquid phase change
De-sublimation Gas to solid phase change
Molecular Solids Solids held together by dispersion forces Likely to dissolve in most solvents
Metallic Solids Positive nuclei of metal atoms held together by valence electrons
Network Solids Solids held together by covalent bonds Not likely to dissolve in most solvents
Ionic Solids Held together by electrical forces between molecules
Collodial Suspension Molecules uniformly disperses throughout the medium Between solutions and mixtures Between different phases
Miscibility If a solute with dissolve in a solvent
Solubility How much a solute will dissolve in a solvent
Saturation Point Point where no more solute can be dissolved in the solvent
Alloy Substitution Replacement of one solid atom with another to maintain general lattice shape
Alloy Interstitial Placement Introduction of new solid atom distorts normal lattice structure
Dynamic Equilibrium Rate of gas escaping the liquid phase is equal to the rate of gas dissolving into the liquid phase In a closed system
Surfactants Hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic head Keep like phases near each other Reduce surface tension of a liquid
Monolayers One row of surfactants to separate phases
Micelles Surfactants form circle to enclose one phase from another
Vesicles Bilayer of surfactants
Colligative Properties Properties that change based on the amount of solute present
Vapor Pressure Reduction Number of available solvent molecules at the surface to escape to gas phase is reduced with the introduction of a solute
Freezing Point Depression Fewer solvent molecules available to change into solid phase because of introduction of solute
Boiling Point Elevation Fewer solvent molecules able to reach surface and change into gas phase because of introduction of solute
Osmotic Pressure Pressure applied to a solution to prevent the flow of solvent across a semi-permeable membrane
Properties of Liquids Surface tensions, capillary action, viscosity, vapor pressure
Simple Cubic Unit Cell Repeating unit form a 3D shape to represent the solid
Body-Centred Cubic Cell Repeating unit centred around a cell
Face-Centred Cubic Repeating unit centred around a cell with faces sticking out of the sides
Ion-Dipole Forces Between ion and permanent dipole eg, Ion dissolved in water
Hydrogen Bonding Forces Slightly polar hydrogen attracted to a lone pair eg, Water and ethanol
Dipole-Dipole Forces Mutual attraction of two dipoles eg, HCl & HCl
Ion-Induced Dipole Ion induces a dipole in another molecule then it is attracted to it eg, Ca2+ and O2
Dipole-Induced Dipole Dipole induces a dipole in another molecule eg, HCl and Cl2
Dispersion Forces Shifts of electron cloud density induce momentary attractions eg, CH4 &CH4
Intermolecular Forces - Strongest to Weakest Ion-Dipole Hydrogen bonding Dipole-Dipole Ion-Induced Dipole Dipole-Induced Dipole Dispersion
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