Introduction and Ionic Bonding


IGCSE Chemistry (C2 Bonding) Note on Introduction and Ionic Bonding, created by ShreyaDas on 30/03/2014.
Note by ShreyaDas, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by ShreyaDas over 10 years ago

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Introduction:bonding = electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged species3 types of bonding: ionic, covalent, metallic

Difference between atoms and ions:- atoms are uncharged- number of protons in an atom is the same as the number of electrons- if an atom gains or loses an electron, it will become electrically chargedMetal atoms and hydrogen atoms form positive ions- sodium atom loses one electron to form a positively charged sodium ion

Non-metallic elements form negative ions- do this by gaining electrons- chlorine atom gains one electron to become a chloride ion, Cl-

Negative ions: anionsPositive ions: cations

Polyatomic ions:- hydroxide ion OH-- nitrate ion NO3-- sulphate ion SO42-

Any atom becomes an ion if it loses or gains electronsion is a charged particle- it is charged because it contains an unequal number of protons and electrons

Reaction between two atoms (sodium and chlorine)sodium atom can lose one electronchlorine atom can gain oneTO OBTAIN FULL OUTER SHELLSwhen a sodium atom and a chlorine atom react together:- the sodium atoms loses one electrons- the chlorine atom gains one electron (the one sodium lost)

Metals (left-hand side of the periodic table) have only a few electrons in their outer shell = easier for them to form ions by losing electrons

Non-metal atoms have almost full outer shells = easiest for them to form ions by gaining electrons

Ions formed by metals will have a positive charfe because there are less electrons than protons present in the ion

Ions formed by non-metals will have a negative charge bacause there are more electrons than protons


According to the valencies of the different atoms, the number of ions in a reaction will change

Sodium Chloridewhen sodium reacts with chlorine, billions of sodium and chloride ions form = attracted to each otherIons do not stay in pairs --> cluster togetherheld together by strong ionic bondseach ions forms six bondsequal numbers of each atomlattice structureregular arrangement of alternating positive and negative ionsIonic compounds are always solids at room temperatures- high melting and boiling points

Empirical formula: ratio of number of atoms in each compound in a reaction 

Introduction to Ions

Ionic Bonding


Valencies and Formulas

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