|Name 5 parts of the respiratory system.
|Nose Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli Inter-costal muscles Ribs Diaphragm Pleural Membrane
|What is gaseous exchange and where does it occur?
|The process where oxygen is taken from the air and exchanged for carbon dioxide. It takes place in the alveoli located inside the lungs.
|Describe the physical changes that occur to the following components during inspiration: Ribs, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, air pressure and lungs
|The ribs lift upwards. The diaphragm contracts and pushes down so that it appears to be flatter. The intercostal muscles contract to lift the rib cage. The air pressure falls due to the internal space increasing in size. The lungs fills with air.
|Describe the physical changes that occur to the following components during expiration: Ribs, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, air pressure and lungs.
|The ribs lower. The diaphragm relaxes and bulges up. The intercostal muscles relax. The air pressure increases due to the internal space decreasing in size. The air is forced out of the lungs.
|What is the definition for respiratory rate?
|The number of breaths taken in one minute.
|What is the defintion for VO2 MAX?
|The maximum amount of oxygen a person can take in and use in one minute.
|What effect does exercise have on the respiratory rate and VO2 MAX?
|Both significantly increase. The breathing rate can increase by upto 3 times. The VO2 MAX can increase by upto 20 times to ensure oxygen reaches the working muscles.
|Aerobic respiration Give the definition, the equation and a sporting example.
|Aerobic respiration is in the presence of oxygen. Glucose + oxygen = energy + carbon dioxide + water Cross country running
|Anaerobic respiration Give the definition, the equation and a sporting example.
|Anaerobic respiration is in the absence of oxygen. Glucose = energy + lactic acid 100m sprinter
|What is lactic acid?
|It is a mild poison, a waste product.
|What effect does lactic acid have on performance?
|The muscles stiffen The muscles fatigue Muscles get cramp The player may be forced to stop The player may be substituted
|What is cramp and how can it be relieved?
|A muscle is locked in contrcation or is in spasm. It is an involuntary contraction following intense exercise. It can be relieved by massaging the affected area.
|What is fatigue?
|It is a feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness. When muscles no longer continue to work properly, you may be forced to stop performing.
|What are the signs of fatigue?
|The signs (see or feel) pain, joints stiffen, cramp, deep breathing, muscles ache, stress, tired, increased pulse and red skin.
|What are the effects of fatigue on performance?
|Effects (impact on your play) Lower levels of concentration Decreasing stamina Mistakes start to happen Greater risk of injury or accidents May be substituted
|What type of athletes use slow twitch fibres? What are the characteristics of slow twitch fibres?
|Athletes participating in endurance activities like fell running and cyclo cross. The fibres contract slowly without much force. They do not tire easily.
|What type of athletes use fast twitch fibres? What are the characteristics of fast twitch fibres?
|Athletes involved in explosive events like a 100 metre sprinter or a long jumper. The fast twitch fibres contract much faster with more force. They tire easily.
|What are the short term effects of exercise on the respiratory system?
|Increase the rate of breathing Increase the depth of breathing Increasing the blood flow through the lungs Increasing the oxygen taken up and used by the body Oxygen used during exercise can be upto 20 times a person's normal oxygen uptake.
|What are the long term effects of training on the respiratory system?
|Increased lung size Increased capillary network into the alveoli Improved gaseous exchange Better stamina Improved VO2 MAX Sustain high levels of performance Performer less out of breath
|Where is glycogen stored?
|In the liver and muscles
|What is an oxygen debt?
|When the muscles have been starved of oxygen due to an excessive work rate.
|How can an oxygen debt be repaid?
|By stopping the activity and taking deep breaths to ensure the body receives more oxygen.
|What does the circulatory system consist of?
|Heart, blood and blood vessels
|What is the function the circulatory system?
|To deliver oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles and remove unwanted carbon dioxide.
|What are the four components of blood?
|Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets Plasma
|Red blood cells contain a substance to help it to carry oxygen around the body. What is this substance called? When combined with oxygen what is it called?
|What is the role of the white blood cells?
|Defend the body against disease. White blood cells surround the germs before eating them up.
|What is the role of platelets?
|They help blood to clot, this prevents bacteria entering the wound and stops you bleeding to death.
|What is the role of plasma?
|It helps transport substances around the body and maintain body temperature.
|The circulatory system has three main functions. What are they?
|Transportation Protection Temperature regulation
|Explain how the circulatory system aids transportation.
|Oxygen, glucose and hormones are taken around the body. Carbon dioxide and other waste products are removed.
|Explain how the circulatory system protects the body.
|Antibodies fight infection. Platelets seal wounds. Lactic acid prevents an athlete from continuing to participate in their activity.
|Explain how the ciculatory system regulates body temperature.
|Water in sweat is evaporated cooling the body. The blood absorbs body heat and carries it to the skins surface so it can be released.
|Name the three different types of blood vessels found in the body.
|Arteries Capillaries Veins
|Explain the function of each blood vessel.
|Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Capillaries carry blood to and from the bodies cells. Veins carry blood back into the heart.
|Which blood vessel contains valves and why?
|Veins have valves. It is necessary to keep the blood flowing in one direction. The returning blood going to the heart in the veins is at a low pressure and is working against garvity so the valves help to shunt the blood through the veins.
|Name the properties associated with an artery.
|Has a thick muscular wall. Carries blood away from the heart. Carries blood at a high pressure. Carries oxygen rich blood to the bodies cells.
|Name the properties associated with a capillary.
|Carries blood to and from the body's cells. Connects an artery to a vein. Has a very thin wall made of a single layer of cells. Has a thin wall so that the substances can be exchanged between the blood and the body cells.
|Name the properties associated with a vein.
|Has a thin wall and contains valves. Carries blood back into the heart. Carries blood at a low pressure. Carries deoxygenated blood from the body's cells to the heart.
|What type of muscle is the cardiac muscle?
|It is an involuntary muscle. It works effortlessly and tirelessly to supply oxygenated blood to the working tissues of the body.
|The circulatory system is known as a double pump. What are the two circuits called?
|Systemic circuit Pulmonary circuit
|Explain the systemic circuit.
|The oxygenated blood starts in the left ventricle. It is pumped into the aorta and carried to the working tissues of the body. The waste carbon dioxide enters the vena cava and is transported to the right atrium.
|Explain pulmonary circuit.
|The deoxygenated blood leaves the right ventricle in the pulmonary artery and is taken to the lungs. The carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen. The oxygenated blood enters the pulmonary vein and is carried to the left atrium.
|How can we measure the hearts productivity?
|Take the pulse Pulse - a recording of the rate per minute at which the heart beats.
|Where can the pulse be taken and what are the names of the arteries at each location?
|Wrist - Radial artery Neck - Carotid artery Temple - Temporal artery Groin - Femoral artery
|What is the definition for heart beat and stroke volume?
|Heart beat - One contraction and relaxation of the heart. Stroke volume - the amount of blood leaving the left ventricle per beat.
|What is the defintion for heart rate?
|The number of times the heart beats in one minute.
|What is the defintion for cardiac output? How is the cardiac output calculated?
|The volume of blood leaving the left ventricle in one minute. heart rate x stroke volume = cardiac output
|What is cardio vascular endurance?
|The ability of the heart and lungs to keep supplying oxygen in the blood stream to the body in order to provide the energy to sustain physical movement.
|How can you improve cardio vascular endurance?
|Raise the heart rate above the threshold of training. The training threshold is 60% of your maximum heart rate.
|How is your maximum heart rate calculated?
|220 - AGE = MHR
|Name the training zone that endurance athletes would use when training. What % of their maximum heart rate would they be training at?
|Aerobic training zone 60 - 80% MHR
|Name the training zone that an explosive athlete would use when training. What % of their maximum heart rate would they be working at?
|Anaerobic training zone 80-90% MHR
|What two measurements could you use to test your cardio vascular endurance?
|Resting heart rate The lower the figure the better it is. Recovery heart rate The faster your working heart rate returns to its resting heart rate the better it is.
|List the features associated with an efficient circulatory system.
|Strong cardiac muscle Low resting heart rate Greater stroke volume High cardiac output Greater stamina Fast recovery heart rate Low blood pressure Low cholesterol
|What is blood pressure?
|The force of the circulating blood on the walls of the arteries.
|What causes high blood pressure?
|Age Gender Smoking Poor Diet Alcohol Drugs Stress and tension Exercise (short term effect)
|What is vasodilation? Explain what happens.
|Vasodilation: The body releases heat from the body. Blood vessels expand so they are nearer to the skins surface. Heat is lost through radiation. Sweat glands make more sweat which is then evaporated at the skins surface to help keep you cool.
|What is vasoconstriction? Explain what happens.
|Vasoconstriction - the body tries to keep warm. You stop sweating. Blood vessels constrict to pull them away from the skins surface. Muscles start to shiver to generate heat.