APUSH Period 2: Colonization


This is a set of flashcards to help review for the Period 2 AP US History test.
Kellie Willhite
Flashcards by Kellie Willhite, updated more than 1 year ago
Kellie Willhite
Created by Kellie Willhite about 5 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Chesapeake colonies (VA, MD) -representative governments (House of Burgesses/Delegates) -settled to find profitable resources and trade routes -economy depended on growing and selling tobacco (boom/bust economy) -slavery: large tobacco plantations, center of domestic slave trade -VA was Anglican, MD allowed all Christians
New England colonies (MA, RI, Ct, NH) -in MA, life was regulated by strict religious beliefs ("city on a hill" = beacon of righteousness) -believed in self rule and rights of individuals -not suited for farming -> trade economy (shipbuilding, fishing, ironworks) -slavery: no large plantation systems, slaves lived in cities and small farms -little individual freedom b/c of strict ethical and moral rule -had generally friendly relations w/ natives at first, but tensions developed
Middle colonies (NY, NJ, PA, DE) -colonial assemblies, religious freedom -Pennsylvania: founded as a utopian community of progress and prosperity -"breadbasket" colonies, grew grains -two largest ports in the colonies (NYC, Philadelphia) -dominated by Quakers -many diverse ethnicities and religions along the Hudson River
Lower South colonies (NC, SC, GA) -NC: most democratic colony, land of outcasts -GA: buffer colony against France and Spain, debtor's colony. slavery illegal -best suited for farming (mild winters, lots of rain, arable land); grew rice -slavery: large rice and cotton plantations -SC: constant war with Spanish Florida and native tribes
slavery -proximity: only 2-6 to get to colonies from the Caribbean -experience: knowledge of working in sugar and rice production -immunity: less likely to get sick due to prolonged contact w/ European diseases -low escape possibilities: didn't know land, had no allies, highly visible -became an economic and racial institution -outnumbered white indentured servants by mid-1680s -Middle Passage: 1/5 died on the way from Africa to the Caribbean
Triangular Trade 1) finished products (rum) sent from New England to Europe and Africa 2) once in Africa, slave traders captured slaves and transported them to the West Indies 3) picked up sugar/molasses for New England where it was distilled into rum
slave codes -began in 1662 -made Africans and their children property of white owners for life -became a crime to teach a slave to read of wrtie -conversion to Christianity did not qualify the slave for freedom
mercantilism -goal was economic self sufficiency through a closed economic system -colonies provided raw materials -mother country produces manufactured goods and sells them back to colonies -led to development of cities near ports and emergence of cash crop plantations in the south -competed with other European nations
Navigation Acts of 1660 -laws to regulate trade and decrease smuggling -had to ship in English ships with 3/4 English crews -certain enumerated goods could only go to England (tobacco, rice, indigo, rum) -goods traded between colonies and other European ports had to be first unloaded at English ports -not strictly enforced (salutary neglect = turning a blind eye to smuggling as long as British were making profit)
characteristics of Spanish colonization -focused on converting natives to Catholicism and on gaining wealth through tight control over colonies -3 Gs: God, gold,, glory
characteristics of French and Dutch colonization -fewer inhabitants than other countries -focused on trade (fur) -had good relations with natives (alliances, intermarriage)
characteristics of English colonization -based on agriculture -large number of men and women inhabited the colonies -relatively hostile relations with natives
Pueblo Revolt (late 17th century) -Native American revolt in current-day NM against the Spanish -Spanish were expelled for 10 years -once Spanish regained control, they took a more accommodating approach to natives and allowed some religious accommodation
the Enlightenment -focused on reason and knowledge -promoted new ideas about government (natural rights, consent of the governed, separation of powers) -influenced the American Revolution (began to question government and limited rights)
Anglicization -process of colonies becoming and acting British -influenced by print culture (newspapers and writings) and communities based on English models
Roger Williams -founder of Rhode Island (1647) -opposed to compulsory church service -> banished and moved to Providence -set up RI as a colony to practice religious toleration -believed in freedom of religion and separation of church and state
Anne Hutchinson -dissenter in Mass. Bay who argued that the clergy were not entitled to spiritual authority -challenged prevailing assumptions about the role of women in Puritan society -felt that good faith was necessary for salvation
Salem Witch Trials (1692-1693 MA) -many women were accused of being witches (from low social position, widowed, or challenged traditional gender roles) -20+ people were burned at the stake -created sense of worry in Puritan society -enforced good behavior that followed norms to avoid being accused
John Peter Zenger -NY journalist put on trial b/c he pointed out immoral actions of a governor -began the fight for free press -allowed colonies to speak out against motherland -thought that people should be able to freely speak their honest views against the government
Leisler's Rebellion -an uprising in colonial NY -seized southern part of NY with the purpose of conveying the resentment that the colonists had for the policies of the English king James II
Bacon's Rebellion (1675-1677) -Bacon resented Gov. Berkeley for signing a treaty with natives that prevented backcountry farmers from extending the settlement's border and fur trade further inland -contributed to struggle to define the native and white influence in VA -a reason why farmers began to use African slaves a larger majority of the labor force (white indentured servants would have to be released after a certain point in time -> landless class in colony)
New Lights vs. Old Lights -Old lights: orthodox members of the clergy who believed that the new ways of revivals and emotional preaching were unnecessary -New lights: more modern-thinking members of the clergy who strongly believed in the Great Awakening (religious expression of emotion would be saved by God)
Robert Keayne -prominent merchant in the 17th century from Windsor, UK -immigrated as Puritan to MA; worked as member of legislature and ran his trade business -preached his Puritan ideas to friends -built a fortune in business but found guilty of unfair business practices (over charging) -> marked the rise of capitalist ideals, challenged the religious ideals of the New England colonies
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