The Geography Of Earthquakes


flashcards to revise earthquake terms and concepts
Flashcards by eimearkelly3, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by eimearkelly3 over 10 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Earthquakes Tremors or vibrations in the earth's crust caused by the sudden release of energy along a fault line.
Order of shocks Foreshock, Main shock, Aftershock
When plates return to their normal positions after an earthquakes. Elastic rebound
Where the earthquake originates Focus
The point on the surface directly above the focus Epicentre
Most damage is done at the Epicentre
Instrument used to measure and record earthquakes Seismometer / seismograph
Instrument used to measure the magnitude/intensity of an earthquake Scale Type of scale Richter Scale 1 -10 Logorythmic scale
Scale showing level of damage Scale Modified Mercalli Scale 1 -12
Preperations for earthquakes Gas pipes can be turned off. Evacuation plans put in place. Building methods
Methods of prediction History of earthquakes, patterns of earthquake activity, areas that have experienced a period of inactivity, tiltmeters to record changes in the level of land, signs of disturbance such as foreshocks, animal behaviour
Factors affecting damage Time Magnitude Depth of the focus Distance from the epicentre Duration of the earthquake Type of rocks and soils Size of the population Building structures Utilities e.g. gas pipes
Effects of earthquakes Loss of life, damage to property, communications, water supply, gas leaks, power cuts, liquefaction, fires, tsunamis, damage to sewage system, landslides, migration, economic slowdown
Ways to limit earthquake damage earthquake-proof buildings (flexible columns / rollers), fire-proofing, stable ground (planning laws)
Tsunami Destructive wave of water caused by an earthquake at sea.
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