Biology - Ecology


Flashcards which include: Description of water and carbon cycle Abiotic and biotic factors Adaptations Required practicals (quadrats, transect lines)
Somto Ibeme
Flashcards by Somto Ibeme, updated more than 1 year ago
Somto Ibeme
Created by Somto Ibeme about 6 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
What are abiotic factors? non-living factors of ecosystem temperature light/wind intensity concentration of CO2/O2
What are biotic factors? living factors predators competition (no. too low to breed) availability of food new pathogen
Definition of population: all organisms of one species living in a habitat
Definition of community: populations of different species living in a habitat
Definition of ecosystem: interaction of a community of organisms (biotic) with non-living (abiotic) parts of environment
What do plants compete for? water, light, space, mineral ions (nutrients)
What do animals compete for? space(territory), food, water, mates
What are extremophiles? microorganisms that are adapted to live in extreme conditions high pressure (deep sea vents) high temperatures (volcanic vents) high salt concentrations
What are structural adaptations? features of organism's body structure thick layer of blubber (retain heat, store of energy) large surface area to volume ratio (lose heat) small ears (reduces heat losses) large feet (spread load evenly)
What are behavioural adaptations? way organism behaves migration (avoid cold conditions) acting dead releasing toxins/poisons to warn others
What are quadrats and what are they used for? square frame enclosing known area, how common an organism is study distribution of small organisms
What are transect lines and what are they used for? study distribution of organism across an area
What are four main stages of water cycle? evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation
Description of water cycle: water evaporates from sea/land/plants (transpiration) vapour carried upwards, cools + condenses (clouds) water falls as rain/snow/hail on land, fresh water for plants/humans drains into sea
What is a stable community? population sizes roughly the same (environmental factors in balance), numbers of predators + prey rise + fall in cycles. tropical rainforests, woodlands
What is interdependence? species depend on other species in order to survive (seed dispersal, shelter...) if one species removed, major change on ecosystem
What do food chains always start with? producer (green plant/algae) produce own food using energy from sun
What is biomass? mass of living material, energy stored in plant
Why is there more biomass at the lower trophic levels? only small proportion of food converted into new tissue (the food for next trophic level), not digested
Calculate mean number of organisms per quadrat: total no. of organisms/no. of quadrats
Carbon cycle: combustion (burning (fossil fuels/deforestation)) photosynthesis decomposition (CO2 released in decay) respiration
Indicators of pollution: mayfly larva (clean) sludgeworm (high pollution) sulfur dioxide damage lichens bushy lichen (present in clean air) crusty lichen (more tolerant)
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