Week 6 Central Nervous System (CNS) and Pharmacology


Nursing Flashcards on Week 6 Central Nervous System (CNS) and Pharmacology, created by Elizabeth Then on 10/09/2017.
Elizabeth Then
Flashcards by Elizabeth Then, updated more than 1 year ago
Elizabeth Then
Created by Elizabeth Then over 6 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
2 main CNS pathways serotonin and 5-HT important for sleep, mood, hallucinations, sensory transmission mostly g-protein coupled receptors
Main dopamine pathways in the CNS mesolimbic pathway- brain reward system, facilitates learning, activated by drugs of dependence (DA release or blocks DA uptake) nigrostriatal pathway- deficiency of dopamine in this pathway, associated with parkinsons
Acetylcholine, Ach CNS, brain stem, cortex and hippocampus, involved in parkinsons and alzheimers
Amino acids glutamate and aspartate= excitatory neurotransmitters invloved in neurogenerative disorders, brain damage, strokes
GABA inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA -A ligand receptors bind benzos, CNS depressants, alcohol GABA-B G-protein linked receptors inhibit neurotransmitter release
Depression neurotransmitters: NA, 5-HT depletion
Depression treatments alter amine storage, release or uptake within CNS SSRI= 5-HT uptake Tricyclics (TCA)= 5 HT > NA uptake Selective MAOI type A= prevents breakdown of 5-HT, NA, reversible, mainly CNS
Adverse effects of depression treatments SSRI= headache, nausea TCAs= dry mouth, blurred vision, sedation, confusion MAOI type A= negligible cardiovascular effects
Schizophrenia neurotransmitter: DA, 5 HT overactivity
Treatments for schizophrenia control positive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions but not always negative symptoms mood antipsychotics- CNS effects Typical: block DA receptors, mainly the D2 (chlorpropazine) Atypical: mostly block 5 HT receptors (clozapine)
Adverse effects of schizoprenia treatments Typical: can cause movement disorders, dry mouth, postural hypotension, sedation Atypical: reduction in white cell numbers
Parkinsons disease progressice degeneration of DA neurons in the substantia nigra
Parkinson treatment levodopa (precursor of DA) and carbidopa (peripehral dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor)
Parkinson treatment adverse effects nausea, confusion, nightmares, with prolonged use of levodopa (2 years), it becomes less effective.
Alcohol CNS depressant Alcohol causes activation of GABA-A receptor and inhibition of glutamate (NMDA type) receptor in brain. alcohol indirectly stimulates the release of endogenous opiods and dopamine int he brain reward system via inhibition of GABA neurons
BAC blood alcohol concentration, amount of gram per 100 mililitres of blood, vary in genders, age, body size, liver, genetics
alcohol is metabolised by mostly in liver and acetaldehyde is a toxic short lived metabolite, at low BAC, euphoric effect, loss of emotional restraint, mild impairment of judgement at high BACs, memory is affected, coma, death, stupor
Nicotine improve cognitive function, mood, anxiety, decrease appetite is a nAch receptor agonist and stimulates the dopamine reward pathway in brain, therefore enhancing dependency
chronic use with nicotine tolerance, withdrawal syndrome, mood, dysphoria, irritability, anxiety
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