Which of the following are considered the "rules of direct causal association"
not all patients with the type of cancer in question have to have previously been infected with the virus
every cancer of this type carries the virus' genetic information in every malignant cell
The virus itself, or individual virus genes can often "transform" the growth of normal cells in cell culture
all patients with the type of cancer in question have previously infected with the virus
Which of the following contribute to the breakdown of tolerance?
Failure to delete auto-reactive lymphocytes (peripheral and central tolerance failure)
Abnormal presentation of self antigens
Polyclonal lymphocyte activation
All of the above
None of the above. This is a trick question.
Cigarette smoke is an irritant to the respiratory epithelium. It paralyses the sensitive cilia on the columnar cells and so the cells are (reversibly) replaced by the more robust squamous cells. This is an example of...
Dysplasia is the (reversible) state where a cell can change in which of the following ways...
Dysplasia is considered...
Which of the following are true?
Carcinomas are tumours of the epithelium
Lymphomas, leukaemias and myelomas are haematological tumours
Benign tumours can be fatal
Sarcomas are tumours of muscle, cartilage, bone etc
Benign tumours are still functional tissues
cancers arise in single cells. this makes them clonal in origin.
because all the cells in the cancer arose from the proliferation of this one cell, cancers are said to be
Is a malignant cell able to perform specialist tasks?
Distant growths originating from one tumour are called metastases?
Which of the following have an influence upon cancer development