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VMRCVM Gen Vet Med class of 2016. Lecture 4.
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Anaphylaxis can be defined as:
A systemic hypersensitivity reaction that can cause multi-organ failure and is often an emergency.
A severe Type I hypersensitivity reaction.
An immune response mediated almost exclusively by IgG and IgM.
The inability to breathe due to swollen airways.
Generally Type I hypersensitivity reactions require multiple exposures to an agent before occurring.
Potentiation of mast cell degranulation is most often attributed to:
Not removing the inciting agent.
Organ failure and an inability to compensate.
Clinical signs that accompany anaphylaxis may include: (select all that apply)
Pruritis, wheals, or edema on the skin.
Increased gastric motility.
A localized anaphylactic reaction has the potential to progress to a systemic anaphylactic reaction.
Which of the following is true?
Dogs are more likely to present with dyspnea, collapse, and excessive mucous production as signs of anaphylaxis than are cats.
Cats are more likely present with dyspnea, collapse, and excessive mucous production as signs of anaphylaxis than are dogs.
Cats are more likely to present with cutaneous lesions as signs of anaphylaxis than are dogs.
More than one of these answer choices is correct.
Like anaphylactic reactions, anaphylactoid reactions require previous sensitization, but occur more frequently on the third or fourth exposure than on the second.
The difference between localized and systemic anaphylaxis is:
The immunoglobulins involved, as the skin creates a different type of immunoglobulin than does the blood.
Where the exposure occurred, for example a bee sting in the skin versus ingesting an allergen.
Localized anaphylaxis is characterized by histamine as a mediator of degranulation, whereas localized anaphylaxis relies on serotonin.
Localized anaphylaxis tends to be restricted to one location (often the skin), whereas systemic anaphylaxis involves 2 or more organ systems.
Why is epinephrine such a key player in the treatment of systemic anaphylaxis?
It reduces mast cell degranulation.
It increases heart rate, and the subsequent increased movement of blood through the system pulls fluid from the interstitial spaces and reduces edema.
It promotes bronchoconstriction, allowing a patient to slow their breathing and take deeper breaths.
It induces peripheral vasodilation, allowing for better tissue perfusion.
Which of the following follows appropriate dosing protocol for epinephrine? Select all that apply.
Continuous rate infusion at 0.05 mg/kg/min
Intratracheal dose at 0.02-0.04 mg/kg, diluted.
IV dose at ~0.05-0.1 mL/10 lbs
Is an antihistamine that can be given either orally (1 mg/lb) or IM (1-2 mg/kg).
Is an anti-inflammatory that can be given IV (0.1-0.2 mg/kg).
Is the name of a complex anaphylactic treatment protocol that involves extensive analgesics, sedatives, antihistamines, and fluids.
Is much better at addressing hypotension than is epinephrine.
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