Pharmaceutics Drug degradation

Description

Pharmaceutics Exam 1 Quiz on Pharmaceutics Drug degradation, created by jacosta08 on 10/02/2015.
jacosta08
Quiz by jacosta08, updated more than 1 year ago
jacosta08
Created by jacosta08 almost 9 years ago
182
1

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Which of the following are mechanisms for chemical drug degradation?
Answer
  • hydrolysis
  • oxidation
  • isomerization
  • epimerization
  • photolysis
  • vaporization
  • polymorphism
  • adsorption

Question 2

Question
Which of the following are mechanisms of physical drug degradation?
Answer
  • vaporization
  • polymorphism
  • adsorption
  • photolysis
  • epimerization
  • isomerization
  • oxidation
  • hydrolysis

Question 3

Question
What is the MOST common cause of drug decomposition?
Answer
  • hydrolysis
  • oxidation
  • vaporization
  • polymorphism
  • adsorption
  • isomerization
  • epimerization
  • photolysis

Question 4

Question
What functional groups are involved hydrolysis reaction drug decomposition?
Answer
  • Ester, Salts, Amides, lactone, lactam
  • Aldehydes, alcohols, phenols, sugars, alkaloids, unsaturated fats and oils

Question 5

Question
What factors affect hydrolysis?
Answer
  • temperature
  • pH
  • water content
  • radiation
  • catalysts
  • synergists
  • UV

Question 6

Question
How would you minimize hydrolysis?
Answer
  • (i) Protecting from heat, (ii) Refrigeration
  • Adjusting the pH and using buffers
  • Removing water or reducing water content
  • Using tightly closed containers
  • Using an insoluble form of the drug in water
  • Lyophilization of the product for subsequent reconstitution
  • Using a soluble form of the drug in water
  • Applying heat and keep at room temp.
  • Use open containers
  • Adding water to dry powder

Question 7

Question
What causes oxidation?
Answer
  • oxidizing agents
  • reducing agents
  • hydrolyzing agents

Question 8

Question
Free radical may form from the presence of trace amounts of
Answer
  • carbon
  • calcium
  • heavy metals (Pb)
  • peroxides
  • atmospheric oxygen
  • carbon dioxide

Question 9

Question
Which of the following is the initiation stage of free radical formation?
Answer
  • R--R ---> R• + R•
  • R• + O2 ---> ROO• ROO• + R--R ---> ROOR + R•
  • R• + R• -----> R--R R• + ROO• ----> ROOR

Question 10

Question
Which of the following represent the propagation stage of free radical formation?
Answer
  • R--R ---> R• + R•
  • R• + O2 ---> ROO• ROO• + R--R ---> ROOR + R•
  • R• + R• -----> R--R R• + ROO• ----> ROOR

Question 11

Question
What factors MOST affect oxidation?
Answer
  • concentration of reducing species
  • concentration of oxidizing species
  • temperature
  • radiation
  • catalysts
  • pH
  • water content

Question 12

Question
Gamma-radiation is used to sterilize products.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 13

Question
Solutions are less sensitive to radiation than solid dosage forms.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 14

Question
Heavy metals (cupric, chromic, ferrous, ferric, etc.) are catalysts that affect hydrolysis.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 15

Question
Epinephrine exhibits a minimum oxidative decomposition at pH = ?
Answer
  • 3.4
  • 1.5
  • 2.8
  • 12
  • 7

Question 16

Question
Epinephrine exhibits a minimum oxidative decomposition at pH 3.4. At higher pH it degrades slower.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 17

Question
In regard to factors affecting oxidation, antibiotic or vitamin preparations have a pH range of maximum stability.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 18

Question
Which antioxidants would be used to improve stability of a drug in an aqueous system?
Answer
  • sodium sulfite
  • sodium metabisulfite
  • sodium bisulfite
  • sodium thiosulfate
  • ascorbic acid
  • hydroquinone
  • propyl gallate
  • butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
  • butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)
  • alpha‐tocopherol

Question 19

Question
Which antioxidants would be used to improve stability of a drug in an oil system?
Answer
  • hydroquinone
  • propyl gallate
  • butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
  • butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)
  • alpha‐tocopherol
  • sodium sulfite
  • sodium metabisulfite
  • sodium bisulfite
  • sodium thiosulfate
  • ascorbic acid

Question 20

Question
For products, extremely sensitive to atmospheric oxygen, the head-space in the pharmaceutical container can be filled with ____ or _____ instead of air.
Answer
  • nitrogen
  • carbon dioxide
  • carbon monoxide
  • hydrogen
  • sulfur
  • water
  • catalysts

Question 21

Question
How would we minimize oxidation other than using antioxidants?
Answer
  • inclusion of chelating agents
  • buffering agents
  • water with heavy metals
  • water without heavy metals
  • use metal containers
  • use glass containers
  • add oxidizing agents

Question 22

Question
Saturated drug molecules have tendency to interact with lights.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 23

Question
Dextro & Levo optical isomers are pharmaceutically active separately.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 24

Question
Generally dextro forms show more pharmacological effects, e.g., epinephrine, alpha‐methyldopa, propranolol, warfarin, ibuprofen, pilocarpine, ergotamine
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 25

Question
Microbiological degradation by bacteria create
Answer
  • alkaline media
  • acidic media
  • neutral media

Question 26

Question
Microbiological degradation by mold and yeast create
Answer
  • acidic media
  • alkaline media
  • neutral media

Question 27

Question
Which dosage form is more vulnerable to microbial degradation?
Answer
  • solution preparations
  • tablets
  • capsules
  • topicals
  • suppositories

Question 28

Question
To remedy microbiological degradation, preservatives can be added & when alcohol is the vehicle, of ____ alcohol itself gives intrinsic bacteriostatic property.
Answer
  • 15‐18%
  • 40-50%
  • 1-5%
  • 7-14%
  • 19-23%

Question 29

Question
According to the law of mass action, the rate of a chemical reaction is
Answer
  • proportional to the product of the molar concentration of the reactants each raised to a power “usually” equal to the number of molecules, a and b, of the substances A and B, respectively, undergoing reaction.
  • proportional to the reactants of the molar concentration of the products each raised to a power “usually” equal to the number of molecules, a and b, of the substances A and B, respectively, undergoing reaction.
  • disproportional to the product of the molar concentration of the reactants each raised to a power “usually” equal to the number of molecules, a and b, of the substances A and B, respectively, undergoing reaction.
  • inversely related to the product of the molar concentration of the reactants each raised to a power “usually” equal to the number of molecules, a and b, of the substances A and B, respectively, undergoing reaction.

Question 30

Question
Molecularity is important in reaction kinetics.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 31

Question
One fundamental of kinetics is the reaction equation has to be balanced. Also, termolecular reactions are common.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 32

Question
2 NO + Br2 =2NOBr
Answer
  • unimolecular
  • bimolecular
  • termolecular

Question 33

Question
H2 + I2 = 2HI
Answer
  • unimolecular
  • bimolecular
  • termolecular

Question 34

Question
Br_2 = 2 Br
Answer
  • unimolecular
  • bimolecular
  • termolecular

Question 35

Question
The overall order of a reaction is the sum of the _______of the concentration items.
Answer
  • exponents
  • rate constant
  • time
  • [reactants]
  • [products]

Question 36

Question
It is difficult to calculate reaction order just looking at the reaction equation.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 37

Question
Knowing reaction order is not important for studying half-life & reaction kinetic studies.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 38

Question
Higher the 'k' value means the slower the reaction.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 39

Question
k does not depend on the concentrations of A & B but it will change if you change the reaction temperature.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 40

Question
All of the following EXCEPT this one are chemical methods of drug degradation.
Answer
  • hydrolysis
  • polymorphism
  • photolysis
  • auto-oxidation
  • racemization
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