The Reformation


Martin Luther, John Calvin, Henry VIII
keeva byrne
Flashcards by keeva byrne, updated more than 1 year ago
keeva byrne
Created by keeva byrne almost 8 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
What caused The Reformation??? Simony Nepotism Absenteeism Pluralism Sale of Indulgences Some Popes led immoral lives
Why did Martin Luther become a monk??? One day, he was caught in a frightening thunderstorm. He vowed that IF HIS LIFE WAS SPARED, HE'D BECOME A MONK. He joined the Augustinian order.
What was Justification by Faith Alone??? Father Luther became convinced that he (like everybody else) was a terrible sinner and that only Faith in God could save his soul.
Martin Luther was a well-known professor of what University??? The University of Wittenberg.
Why did Martin Luther nail his ninety-five theses to the church door??? Luther saw Friar John Tetzel offering indulgences in return for contributions to the rebuilding fund for St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Luther's theses contradicted several Church teachings.
What was the Diet of Worms??? Emperor Charles V called a meeting of princes. In the Edict of Worms, Luther was declared to be heretic and an outlaw. He was EXCOMMUNICATED.
Who protected Luther and where was he kept??? Frederick of Saxony protected him in his castle at WARTBURG. While staying in the castle, Luther translated the Bible into German.
How did Martin Luther's beliefs spread??? Luther's Protestant ideas were published in a book called the Confessions of Augsburg.
Name THREE of Luther's beliefs. 1. Martin Luther believed that priests should be allowed to marry. 2. He believed the Bible was the sole source of religious truth. 3. He believed in 2 sacraments, whereas the Catholic Church believes in 7.
What was the name of his wife, whom he had five children with??? Her name was Catherine von Bora. She was an ex-nun.
When and where was John Calvin born??? He was born in 1506 in France and went on to study at the University of Paris. He converted to Lutheran.
Why did John Calvin move to Basel, Switzerland. King Francis I persecuted Protestants. While in Basel, Calvin wrote "The Institute of Christian Religion"
Name FOUR of Calvin's beliefs. 1. He believed there should not be a Pope or bishops. 2. Like Luther, Calvin believed in two sacraments instead of seven. 3. The Bible was the sacrament of all teaching. 4. Mass should be in the vernacular (language of the country).
What was Predestination??? The Elect- people who got into Heaven. Calvin believed that your fate was decided before you were born.
What was Calvin invited to set up in Geneva in 1536??? He was invited to set up the Church. However, his ideas were unpopular so he was forced to leave.
What did Calvin do in 1541??? He went back to Geneva and took control.
What jobs were done in the church??? Pastors - Administrated Sacraments. Elders - Responsible for daily life. Doctors - Responsible for the doctrine (rules) Deacons - Looked after the sick. John Calvin was a doctor.
What was life like in Geneva??? Singing, dancing, music, gambling, drinking and theatre were all forbidden. Anyone who disagreed with Calvin would be executed, fined or imprisoned. Churches were bare. There were no iconography.
What did Geneva become known as??? Geneva became known as The City of God => Presbyterian Church.
What did John Calvin do next??? Protestant Rome -> Calvin set up an Academy to train priests to spread the religion. - In England = Puritans - In France = Huguenots - John Knox brought Presbyterianism to Scotland -> Ulster during the plantation.
When did John Calvin die??? John Calvin died in 1564.
Why did Henry VIII break from Rome??? Henry VIII broke from Rome to get an annulment from Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. Catherine of Aragon had only had one child - a daughter = Mary . He needed a male heir.
What title was he given after he was initially opposed to Martin Luther??? He was given the title - "Defender of the Faith".
What problem did he face??? Henry VIII wanted to divorce Catherine and marry Anne Boleyn. However, the Catholic Church did not allow divorce.
Why could Henry VIII get an annulment??? He was married to his dead brother's wife which was not allowed by the Church
Who did he send to Rome to persuade the Pope??? He sent Cardinal Wolsey to persuade Pope Clement VI.
What was the Church's response??? The Pope said NO because: 1. The Church gave special permission for Henry to marry Catherine in the first place. If annulment was granted the Church would be saying that they were wrong. 2. Catherine's nephew was Charles V. He was the leader of the Holy Roman Empire.
What were Thomas Cromwell and Thomas Cranmer's involvements??? Henry VIII was angry so he broke away from Rome. 1. Cromwell introduced his new policies and became his Chief Advisor. 2. Cranmer made Archbishop of Canterbury, - the most important religious position in the land.
Did Cranmer agree with Henry VIII and allow the divorce??? Yes, Cranmer allowed the divorce so Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn. She was later executed for treason. In all Henry VIII married six times and had only one son, Edward.
After breaking from Rome, Henry VIII introduced the 'Oath of Supremacy'. What was this??? In 1534 - Act of Supremacy - Henry VIII was Head of the Church of England. He introduced the 'Oath of Supremacy' = swear that Henry VIII was the leader of the Church. The passing of this Act by parliament meant the establishment of the Church of England.
What did Henry VIII do next??? Next, he believed that he could not trust the monasteries, he also wanted the wealth and land of the monasteries. He organised the Dissolution of the Monasteries - monasteries were forcibly closed.
Why did this make Henry VIII unpopular??? 1. Monasteries were centres of healthcare and education. 2. He got the land and wealth of the monasteries.
How did the Catholic Church respond to The Reformation??? Counter-Reformation - Catholic Church fought back. Pope Paul III introduced the Council of Trent to deal with issues within the church. Result = abuses were banned and sales of indulgences controlled, priests sent to seminaries, catholic beliefs reinforced and a list of banned books revealed.
Who were The Jesuits??? The Jesuits were set up by Ignatius Loyola, who was Superior General. The order modelled an army. Members were loyal to the Pope and went wherever he sent them. Loyola wrote 'Spiritual Exercises' as a guide to Jesuits. They were passionate about spreading Christianity and education.
What was The Inquisition??? The Inquisition was a court set up to try people with non-Catholic beliefs (heretics). People were often fined, imprisoned, tortured or burnt at the stake. Auto-da-Fe was a religious ceremony where sentences were announced. During this ceremony they would wear a sanbenito (special tunic). Galileo was tried by Inquisition.
What religious wars took place in Europe during The Reformation??? - Thirty Years War - Civil War in France between Catholics and Huguenots resulted in St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre and ended with the Edict of Nantes.
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