Schizophrenia Quiz- Psychology (A2)

Description

AQA A Level Psychology- Schizophrenia. This quiz includes symptoms, diagnosis/classification, explanations, and treatments of schizophrenia.
Grace Fawcitt
Quiz by Grace Fawcitt, updated more than 1 year ago
Grace Fawcitt
Created by Grace Fawcitt over 6 years ago
7014
7

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Match the definition to the key term
Answer
  • 3
  • 8
  • 10
  • 1
  • 5
  • 7
  • 9
  • 11
  • 4
  • 2
  • 6

Question 2

Question
Schizophrenia Facts: 1. Schizophrenia is more commonly diagnosed in [blank_start]men[blank_end] 2. About [blank_start]1%[blank_end] of the population suffer from schizophrenia 3. People are more likely to be diagnosed if they live in the [blank_start]city[blank_end] 4. [blank_start]Working[blank_end] class people are more likely to suffer from schizophrenia
Answer
  • men
  • women
  • 1%
  • 5%
  • 10%
  • city
  • countryside
  • Working
  • Middle
  • Upper

Question 3

Question
DSM [blank_start]5[blank_end]: Must have [blank_start]one[blank_end] [blank_start]positive[blank_end] symptoms to be diagnosed ICD [blank_start]10[blank_end]: Must have [blank_start]two+[blank_end] [blank_start]negative[blank_end] symptoms to be diagnosed
Answer
  • 5
  • 10
  • 2
  • 10
  • 5
  • 2
  • one
  • two+
  • positive
  • negative
  • two+
  • one
  • negative
  • positive

Question 4

Question
There are 3 main types of delusions in schizophrenia: 1. [blank_start]Delusions of grandeur:[blank_end] the false belief that the sufferer is someone of extreme importance 2. [blank_start]Delusions of persecution:[blank_end] the false belief that the sufferer is being targeted- makes them very suspicious. These are the most common form of delusions for sufferers. 3. [blank_start]Somatic delusions:[blank_end] a preoccupation with one's body- the false belief that something is wrong/odd with their body e.g. tumours, blood made of silver
Answer
  • Delusions of grandeur:
  • Somatic delusions:
  • Delusions of persecution:
  • Delusions of persecution:
  • Delusions of grandeur:
  • Somatic delusions
  • Somatic delusions:
  • Delusions of grandeur:
  • Delusions of persecution:

Question 5

Question
Reliability references the [blank_start]consistency[blank_end] of a study. One important measure of reliability is [blank_start]inter-rater[blank_end] reliability. This is the consistency of [blank_start]multiple[blank_end] researchers' diagnoses- do they all come to [blank_start]the same[blank_end] conclusion?
Answer
  • consistency
  • validity
  • accuracy
  • inter-rater
  • integrated
  • experimental
  • valid
  • multiple
  • one
  • the same
  • a different
  • a similar

Question 6

Question
[blank_start]Cheniaux[blank_end] et al. (2009) asked two psychiatrists to [blank_start]independently[blank_end] diagnose 100 patients using the DSM and ICD criteria. Inter-rater reliability was [blank_start]poor[blank_end]: One psychiatrist diagnosed 26 patients using the [blank_start]DSM[blank_end] and 44 patients using the [blank_start]ICD[blank_end] The other psychiatrist diagnosed 13 patients with the [blank_start]DSM[blank_end] and 24 using the [blank_start]ICD[blank_end]. This shows that the results are not consistent; if they were, both psychiatrist would have diagnosed the same number of patients e.g. both diagnosed 26 using the DSM.
Answer
  • Cheniaux
  • Buckley
  • Rosenhan
  • independently
  • work together to
  • poor
  • good
  • DSM
  • ICD
  • ICD
  • DSM
  • DSM
  • ICD
  • ICD
  • DSM

Question 7

Question
One way of assessing validity of diagnosis is [blank_start]criterion validity[blank_end]. This is whether two diagnostic systems come to [blank_start]the same[blank_end] conclusion in terms of diagnosis of a patient. Good criterion validity would mean two diagnostic systems (e.g. DSM and ICD) give the same diagnosis to the same patient.
Answer
  • criterion validity
  • inter-rater reliability
  • external validity
  • internal validity
  • the same
  • a different

Question 8

Question
Cheniaux et al. (2009) did a study in which two psychiatrists independently diagnosed 100 patients using the DSM and the ICD. It was found that DSM diagnosed [blank_start]almost half as many[blank_end] patients with schizophrenia in comparison to the ICD e.g. one psychiatrist diagnosed 13 people using the DSM and 24 using the ICD. This clearly indicates that the two diagnostic systems [blank_start]are not[blank_end] reaching the same conclusions in terms of diagnosis, and therefore the [blank_start]criterion validity[blank_end] is poor.
Answer
  • almost half as many
  • double the amount of
  • the same amount of
  • are not
  • are
  • criterion validity
  • inter-rater reliability

Question 9

Question
[blank_start]Morbidity:[blank_end] how common a medical disorder is [blank_start]Co-morbidity:[blank_end] when two or more disorders occur at the same time If conditions occur together a lot of the time, this questions the reliability and validity of the diagnosis and classification, because they may in fact be [blank_start]a single condition[blank_end].
Answer
  • Morbidity:
  • Co-morbidity:
  • a single condition
  • multiple conditions

Question 10

Question
[blank_start]Buckley[blank_end] et al. investigated the extent to which schizophrenics also suffered from other conditions. Findings: 50% also suffer from [blank_start]depression[blank_end] 47% also suffer from [blank_start]substance abuse[blank_end] 29% also suffer from [blank_start]PTSD[blank_end] 23% also suffer from [blank_start]OCD[blank_end]
Answer
  • Buckley
  • Cheniaux
  • Rosenhan
  • depression
  • substance abuse
  • PTSD
  • OCD

Question 11

Question
Buckley's study into comorbidity suggested that substance abuse and schizophrenia were the most commonly comorbid, with PTSD being the least.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 12

Question
Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder involve positive symptoms such as [blank_start]delusions[blank_end], and negative symptoms such as [blank_start]avolition[blank_end]. Based on the [blank_start]DSM[blank_end], in which you must have one positive symptom, you may be diagnosed with schizophrenia when you actually have bipolar disorder, or vice versa.
Answer
  • delusions
  • speech poverty
  • social withdrawal
  • avolition
  • hallucinations
  • DSM
  • ICD

Question 13

Question
Symptom overlap has one main issue: [blank_start]misdiagnosis[blank_end]. This can lead to either incorrect [blank_start]treatment[blank_end] (could actually worsen the illness) and [blank_start]labelling[blank_end] (affects mortgages, employment, and insurance).
Answer
  • misdiagnosis
  • reliability
  • odd diagnosis
  • treatment
  • identification of cause
  • dismissal
  • labelling
  • payment
  • economic issues

Question 14

Question
Longenecker found that [blank_start]men[blank_end] are more likely than [blank_start]women[blank_end] to be diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, this difference [blank_start]does not[blank_end] mean they are necessarily more likely to suffer from schizophrenia; it may actually be a case of [blank_start]gender[blank_end] bias. One argument is that they do suffer more than [blank_start]women[blank_end] do because they are [blank_start]genetically[blank_end] more vulnerable to developing schizophrenia. However, others argue that men are [blank_start]more[blank_end] likely to be diagnosed because women do not outwardly display symptoms so they may be [blank_start]underdiagnosed[blank_end] with schizophrenia. They may also be more high functioning than men, so can continue to work despite symptoms. This questions the [blank_start]validity[blank_end] of the diagnostic and classification systems.
Answer
  • men
  • women
  • women
  • men
  • does not
  • does
  • gender
  • culture
  • women
  • men
  • genetically
  • psychologically
  • more
  • less
  • underdiagnosed
  • overdiagnosed
  • validity
  • reliability

Question 15

Question
African Americans are several times [blank_start]more[blank_end] likely than white people to be diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, rates of schizophrenia in Africa are relatively [blank_start]low[blank_end], so it can be concluded that these differences [blank_start]are not[blank_end] due to genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia, but rather the result of bias in diagnosis. For example, hearing voices in Africa is often seen as a form of communication with ancestors, and is therefore more acceptable. As well as this, white psychiatrist may over-interpret symptoms and distrust the honesty of black people. This is an example of [blank_start]cultural[blank_end] bias.
Answer
  • more
  • less
  • low
  • high
  • similar
  • are not
  • are
  • cultural
  • gender
  • lack of

Question 16

Question
Label the image with the correct concordance rates and shared genes, as investigated by Gottesman (1991)
Answer
  • 48%
  • 17%
  • 6%
  • 1%
  • 100%
  • 50% (DZ)
  • 50% (S)
  • 0%

Question 17

Question
What can be concluded from Gottesman's study of concordance rates in schizophrenics?
Answer
  • The greater the genetic similarity between two people, the higher the probability that both will develop schizophrenia
  • The lower the genetic similarity between two people, the higher the probability that both will develop schizophrenia
  • Genetics have no influence on the onset/maintenance of schizophrenia
  • Genetics are the sole cause of schizophrenia

Question 18

Question
Name one issue with Gottesman's study of concordance rates in schizophrenics
Answer
  • Identical twins are often brought up in very similar environments (e.g. wear same clothes, do same things etc.) so this is a confounding variable
  • The study is archaic; it was done too long ago to be seen as valid
  • The sample size was too small, so the results can't be effectively generalised

Question 19

Question
It is believed that schizophrenia is polygenic and has multiple candidate genes. What does the term 'polygenic' mean?
Answer
  • The onset of schizophrenia is linked to multiple genes
  • The onset of schizophrenia is linked to one gene
  • Schizophrenics start of with multiple genes for schizophrenia, but as they're cured, the genes are destroyed until there are none left, hence leaving the patient cured.

Question 20

Question
Which researcher investigated candidate genes and when?
Answer
  • Ripke et al (2014)
  • Gottesman (1991)
  • Brown et al (2002)

Question 21

Question
Ripke et al (2014) carried out a [blank_start]wide scale[blank_end] study that combined the data of all previous human genome studies. The genetic make-up of 37,000 schizophrenics was compared to that of 113,000 healthy people. There were [blank_start]108[blank_end] separate variations that were linked to the onset of schizophrenia, with some of them coding for neurotransmitters such as [blank_start]dopamine[blank_end].
Answer
  • wide scale
  • small
  • 108
  • 2
  • thousands of
  • dopamine
  • histamine
  • amino acids

Question 22

Question
What is an issue with schizophrenia having multiple candidate genes?
Answer
  • Difficulty developing treatment as specific cause can't be established
  • Can't be certain genetics are linked to schizophrenia- could be coincidental
  • Dosage of treatment can't be certain as number of genes involved will affect how much medication to take

Question 23

Question
Evidence for the genetic basis of schizophrenia suggests genes are the sole cause of schizophrenia.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 24

Question
Hyperdopaminergia: occurs in the [blank_start]sub cortex[blank_end] and involves [blank_start]high[blank_end] levels of dopamine. Symptoms include [blank_start]hallucinations[blank_end] and [blank_start]delusions[blank_end] Hypodopaminergia: occurs in the [blank_start]cortex[blank_end] and involves [blank_start]low[blank_end] levels of dopamine. Symptoms include [blank_start]avolition[blank_end] and [blank_start]speech poverty[blank_end]
Answer
  • sub cortex
  • high
  • hallucinations
  • delusions
  • cortex
  • low
  • avolition
  • speech poverty

Question 25

Question
[blank_start]High[blank_end] numbers of dopamine receptors in [blank_start]Broca[blank_end]'s area (associated with speech production) lead to [blank_start]high[blank_end] levels of dopamine activity in the area. One symptom this can cause is disorganised speech, a [blank_start]positive[blank_end] symptom. [blank_start]Low[blank_end] levels of dopamine in the pre-frontal cortex (associated with planning and decision making) lead to [blank_start]negative[blank_end] symptoms such as avolition and social withdrawal.
Answer
  • High
  • Low
  • Broca
  • Wernicke
  • high
  • low
  • positive
  • negative
  • Low
  • High
  • negative
  • positive

Question 26

Question
Why might it be possible for hyperdopaminergia and hypodopaminergia to both play a role in the onset/maintenance of schizophrenia?
Answer
  • They can occur simultaneously as they function in different parts of the brain
  • They alternate between the two levels of dopamine
  • High levels of dopamine cause the onset of schizophrenia, while low levels maintain it

Question 27

Question
[blank_start]Curran[blank_end] et al (2004) found that dopamine [blank_start]agonists[blank_end] (such as amphetamines, which [blank_start]increase[blank_end] the levels of dopamine in the brain) can produce schizophrenic symptoms such as hallucinations. This supports the idea that [blank_start]hyperdopaminergia[blank_end] plays a role in the development of schizophrenia. [blank_start]Tauscher[blank_end] et al (2014) found that dopamine [blank_start]antagonists[blank_end] (such as antipsychotics., which [blank_start]decrease[blank_end] the levels of dopamine in the brain) can reduce schizophrenic symptoms, supporting the role of [blank_start]hyperdopaminergia[blank_end]. However, [blank_start]Ripke[blank_end] et al found that some of the genes linked to schizophrenia don't code for dopamine, but rather for [blank_start]glutamate[blank_end], suggesting dopamine [blank_start]is not[blank_end] the sole cause of schizophrenia.
Answer
  • Curran
  • Tauscher
  • Tauscher
  • Curran
  • Ripke
  • Ripke
  • Ripke
  • Tauscher
  • Curran
  • agonists
  • antagonists
  • increase
  • decrease
  • hyperdopaminergia
  • hypodopaminergia
  • antagonists
  • agonists
  • decrease
  • increase
  • hyperdopaminergia
  • hypodopaminergia
  • glutamate
  • histamine
  • amino acids
  • is not
  • is

Question 28

Question
What are neural correlates?
Answer
  • Abnormalities of structure and function of the brain which produce schizophrenic symptoms
  • The idea that your neurons associated with mood don't connect properly at the synapse, so the transmissions are abnormal
  • Genes and cognitions combining to produce schizophrenic symptoms

Question 29

Question
In neural correlates, negative symptoms are associated with the [blank_start]ventral striatum[blank_end], which is linked to [blank_start]anticipation[blank_end]. It therefore causes symptoms such as avolition and low mood. Jukel et al. found [blank_start]low[blank_end] levels of activity in the ventral striatum of schizophrenic patients. Lower activity was linked to [blank_start]more[blank_end] severe symptoms ([blank_start]negative[blank_end] correlation). Positive symptoms are associated with the [blank_start]superior temporal gyrus[blank_end] in the [blank_start]temporal[blank_end] lobe, which is linked to [blank_start]auditory processing[blank_end]. It therefore cause symptoms such as auditory hallucinations. [blank_start]Low[blank_end] levels of activity were found in patients who suffered [blank_start]hallucinations[blank_end]. These patients make more errors when identifying pre-recorded speech as their own, when compared to a control group.
Answer
  • ventral striatum
  • anticipation
  • low
  • more
  • negative
  • superior temporal gyrus
  • temporal
  • auditory processing
  • Low
  • hallucinations

Question 30

Question
'One issue with neural correlates is that it is unclear as to whether the abnormality is the cause or effect of schizophrenia. For example, low activity in the ventral striatum may actually be due to the schizophrenia, rather than causing it. ' Is this statement true or false?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 31

Question
[blank_start]Fromm-Reichmann[blank_end] (1948) suggested the psychological explanation for schizophrenia that a schizophrenogenic mother can influence the development of schizophrenia. A schizophrenogenic mother is [blank_start]cold and dominant[blank_end], causing conflict and tension in the family. This causes [blank_start]secrecy[blank_end], leading to distrust and, eventually, [blank_start]paranoia[blank_end]. This therefore causes schizophrenic symptoms such as [blank_start]persecutory delusions[blank_end].
Answer
  • Fromm-Reichmann
  • Ripke
  • Curran
  • Bateson
  • cold and dominant
  • kind and friendly
  • quiet and distant
  • clingy and attention-seeking
  • secrecy
  • honesty
  • unity
  • paranoia
  • peace
  • a stable environment
  • persecutory delusions
  • disorganised speech
  • delusions of grandeur
  • flat effect

Question 32

Question
Bateson (1972) proposed the [blank_start]double[blank_end] bind theory: [blank_start]faulty[blank_end] communication in families causes schizophrenia. This involves [blank_start]contradictory[blank_end] messages, e.g. mother telling child to do something, but when they do it they are punished. This leads to confusion and fear of doing the wrong thing. The individual will then develop strategies and behaviours to [blank_start]avoid[blank_end] the double bind situation, which results in symptoms such as avolition, social withdrawal and the flat effect.
Answer
  • double
  • single
  • half
  • triple
  • faulty
  • lack of
  • too much
  • contradictory
  • honest
  • hostile
  • avoid
  • ensure

Question 33

Question
The three forms of negative expressed emotions: 1. [blank_start]Verbal criticism[blank_end]- scrutinising the individual, sometimes involves violence 2. [blank_start]Hostility[blank_end]- anger and rejection of individual 3. [blank_start]Emotional over-involvement[blank_end]- being overly involved in the individual's personal life
Answer
  • Verbal criticism
  • Hostility
  • Emotional over-involvement

Question 34

Question
What are high levels of negative expressed emotions often correlated with?
Answer
  • High relapse rates
  • Low relapse rates
  • Slower recovery when institutionalised
  • Higher probability of having other disorder as well (co-morbidity)

Question 35

Question
What does negative expressed emotion cause in an individual?
Answer
  • Stress
  • Anger
  • More likely to be an aggressive schizophrenic
  • Sensory issues e.g. muteness, partial deafness, difficulty identifying tastes

Question 36

Question
Cognitive explanations for schizophrenia revolve around [blank_start]dysfunctional[blank_end] thought processing. Lowered processing in the ventral striatum and superior temporal gyrus [blank_start]support[blank_end] the cognitive explanation, as they emphasise how changes in thought processing can cause schizophrenic symptoms. There are two main explanations: 1. Dysfunctional [blank_start]meta-representation[blank_end]- disruption in the ability to recognise [blank_start]our own[blank_end] actions and thoughts as being carried out by ourselves, causing [blank_start]hallucinations[blank_end]. 2. Lack of central control- the [blank_start]inability[blank_end] to supress [blank_start]automatic[blank_end] thoughts, causing disorganised speech. The Stroop test found that schizophrenics take [blank_start]twice[blank_end] as long to supress their automatic thoughts compared to a control group.
Answer
  • dysfunctional
  • functional
  • personal
  • support
  • oppose
  • meta-representation
  • meta-analysis
  • meta-presentation
  • our own
  • others'
  • hallucinations
  • negative symptoms
  • inability
  • ability
  • automatic
  • voluntary
  • twice
  • half

Question 37

Question
Why is it a problem that Fromm-Reichmann observed patients who already had schizophrenia when investigating the schizophrenogenic theory?
Answer
  • The mother wasn't present, so her behaviour couldn't be altered
  • The patients would already be suffering schizophrenic symptoms, and the belief that their mother was cold and dominant may simply be a delusion
  • Fromm-Reichmann already knew that she wanted to prove the schizophrenogenic mother theory, so may have overemphasised evidence

Question 38

Question
Berger (1965) found that schizophrenic patients reported [blank_start]higher[blank_end] recall of double bind statements compared to non-schizophrenics. This is therefore is [blank_start]supporting[blank_end] evidence for the double bind theory, however it lacks [blank_start]reliability[blank_end]; the patients already have schizophrenia, so they may be experiencing delusions which make them believe they experienced double bind situations, when they actually didn't. For example, if they were questioned before the onset of the symptoms, they may have had lower recall, meaning there [blank_start]would not[blank_end] be consistency over time.
Answer
  • higher
  • lower
  • equal
  • supporting
  • opposing
  • reliability
  • validity
  • would not
  • would

Question 39

Question
Liem (1974) found that communication patterns in families with a schizophrenic child was the same as with families with a non-schizophrenic child. What does this evidence suggest about the double bind theory?
Answer
  • Suggests the double bind theory can't be the sole cause of schizophrenia
  • Suggests the double bind theory is the sole cause of schizophrenia
  • Suggests parenting style has no effect on the probability that a child develops schizophrenia
  • Suggests parent-child communication is a key factor in the onset of schizophrenia

Question 40

Question
'Kavanagh (1992) reviewed 26 studies of negative expressed emotion, and found the relapse rates in schizophrenics who reported high levels of negative expressed emotions was 48%, compared to 21% in patients who returned to families with low levels of negative expressed emotion.' Is this statement true or false?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Question
One disadvantage of the negative expressed emotion theory is that 52% of schizophrenics who return to homes with high expressed emotions [blank_start]don't relapse[blank_end]. The reason for this may be [blank_start]individual[blank_end] differences such as the types of symptoms the experience (negative vs. positive), their personality and the severity of symptoms. This indicates that negative expressed emotion [blank_start]is not[blank_end] a full explanation for schizophrenia.
Answer
  • don't relapse
  • relapse
  • individual
  • therapist
  • disorder
  • is not
  • is

Question 42

Question
One main limitation of all family dysfunction explanations is that they all place [blank_start]blame[blank_end] and responsibility on the [blank_start]family[blank_end]. This is an ethical issue as it may cause [blank_start]distress[blank_end] to family members.
Answer
  • blame
  • no blame
  • family
  • individual
  • distress
  • distrust
  • anger

Question 43

Question
Which researcher investigated a lack of central control's link to schizophrenia and found that schizophrenics take twice as long to complete the Stroop test?
Answer
  • Stirling
  • Stroop
  • Curran
  • Ripke
  • Bateson

Question 44

Question
Which treatment for schizophrenia supports cognitive explanations for schizophrenia?
Answer
  • Typical drug therapy
  • Atypical drug therapy
  • Family Therapy
  • Token economy
  • CBT

Question 45

Question
Typical drug therapy for schizophrenia was introduced in the 19[blank_start]50[blank_end]s, with a drug called [blank_start]chlorpromazine[blank_end] that could either be injected or consumed. This therapy involves dopamine [blank_start]antagonists[blank_end]: the drug blocks the receptor sites for dopamine in post-synaptic neurons, hence [blank_start]decreasing[blank_end] levels of the neurotransmitter, meaning symptoms such as [blank_start]hallucinations[blank_end] are reduced. Chlorpromazine is also used as a sedative, as it is linked to the neurotransmitter [blank_start]histamine[blank_end] as well.
Answer
  • 50
  • 70
  • 90
  • chlorpromazine
  • clozapine
  • risperidone
  • antagonists
  • agonists
  • decreasing
  • increasing
  • hallucinations
  • avolition
  • histamine
  • glutamate

Question 46

Question
Atypical drug therapy for schizophrenia was introduced in the 19[blank_start]70[blank_end]s, with a drug called [blank_start]clozapine[blank_end]. The aim of this type of drug therapy was to reduce the side effects of typical drug therapy. Like chlorpromazine, this drug also binds to dopamine receptors on the post-synaptic neuron, hence blocking them, but it also does the same for neurotransmitters [blank_start]serotonin[blank_end] and [blank_start]glutamate[blank_end]. It is often prescribed to [blank_start]suicidal[blank_end] patients for its mood-enhancing effects. However, this drug is also known to cause [blank_start]agranulocytosis[blank_end], a fatal blood disorder, so a new drug was made in the 19[blank_start]90[blank_end]s, risperidone. It has the same binding qualities as clozapine, but binds [blank_start]more[blank_end] strongly, so the doses are smaller and the side effects are reduced.
Answer
  • 70
  • 50
  • 90
  • clozapine
  • chlorpromazine
  • risperidone
  • serotonin
  • histamine
  • glutamate
  • noradrenaline
  • suicidal
  • less severe
  • uncooperative
  • agranulocytosis
  • tardine dyskinesia
  • 90
  • 50
  • more
  • less

Question 47

Question
What percentage of schizophrenic patients attempt suicide? (linked to typical drug therapies)
Answer
  • 30-50%
  • 60%
  • 18.7%
  • 25-30%

Question 48

Question
Thornley (2003) did a meta-analysis of studies comparing the effects of Chlorpromazine to a placebo. What did the study find?
Answer
  • That patients' functioning improved significantly because of the placebo
  • That biology has little role in the development of schizophrenia
  • That chlorpromazine causes better functioning and reduced symptom severity
  • That a combination of the drug and the placebo increased the symptom severity

Question 49

Question
What did Meltzer (2012) suggest about the effectiveness of clozapine?
Answer
  • That it is more effective than other treatments and is effective on 30-50% of treatment resistant cases
  • That patients who took clozapine reported worsening in symptom severity upon taking clozapine
  • That in 33% of cases clozapine worked best when combined with typical drugs like chlorpromazine
  • That it has no significant effect on functioning or symptoms

Question 50

Question
Label the table with the correct side effects associated with the different types of drug therapy. (definition is below the unlabeled term)
Answer
  • Dizziness
  • Weight gain
  • Sleepiness
  • Tardive dyskinesia
  • NMS (neuroleptic malignant syndrome)
  • Agranulocytosis
  • Hyperglycemia

Question 51

Question
What do severe side effects to drug therapies cause?
Answer
  • Compliance to psychological therapy
  • Higher relapse rates- stop taking drugs, symptoms return
  • Lower relapse rates- stop taking drugs when they feel ready and fully functioning
  • Higher levels of aggression to staff members in 88% of relapse cases

Question 52

Question
What do both types of drug therapy treat in order to cure schizophrenia?
Answer
  • Hyperdopaminergia (high levels of dopamine)
  • Hypodopaminergia (low levels of dopamine)
  • Genes
  • Neural correlates

Question 53

Question
While drug therapy does support the [blank_start]dopamine[blank_end] hypothesis as an explanation for schizophrenia, it can also be said that it [blank_start]does not take[blank_end] into account other biological factors such as genes and neural correlates, or external factors such as family dysfunction. This is therefore [blank_start]a limitation[blank_end] of drug therapy.
Answer
  • dopamine
  • serotonin
  • genetic
  • glutamate
  • does not take
  • takes
  • a limitation
  • an advantage

Question 54

Question
Who is likely to over-emphasise the effectiveness of drug therapies?
Answer
  • The patients
  • The patients' families
  • The researcher
  • The drug companies

Question 55

Question
What is the aim of CBT?
Answer
  • To identify and change dysfunctional thoughts
  • To treat abnormalities in brain structure e.g. neural correlates
  • To control how a patient behaves via methods such as hypnotherapy and hydrotherapy

Question 56

Question
[blank_start]Reality[blank_end] testing in CBT involves the patient and psychologist discussing how likely their beliefs are to be [blank_start]true[blank_end]. It also involves considering less [blank_start]threatening[blank_end] possibilities linked to their beliefs. As well as this, CBT helps patients recognise the link between hallucinations/delusions and their feelings/behaviour.
Answer
  • Reality
  • Fantasy
  • Surreality
  • true
  • interesting
  • schizophrenic
  • threatening
  • interesting
  • boring

Question 57

Question
CBT helps patients cope with their symptoms, but does not cure them.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 58

Question
Personal therapy is an approach to [blank_start]CBT[blank_end]. The aim of personal therapy is to [blank_start]evaluate[blank_end] the experiences of a patient, including triggers and consequences. Patients are then provided with strategies to cope with their issues. There are four techniques developed: 1. [blank_start]Distraction for[blank_end] intrusive thoughts 2. [blank_start]Challenging[blank_end] meaning of thoughts 3. [blank_start]Increase/decrease[blank_end] in social activity to distract from low mood 4. [blank_start]Relaxation[blank_end] techniques Personal therapy also helps patients recently discharged from hospital to deal with daily life e.g. recognising signs of relapse.
Answer
  • CBT
  • drug therapy
  • family
  • evaluate
  • describe
  • overcome
  • Distraction for
  • Discussion of
  • Evaluation of
  • Challenging
  • Describing
  • Agreeing with the
  • Increase/decrease
  • Increase
  • Decrease
  • Relaxation
  • Avoidance
  • Activity

Question 59

Question
What did NICE discover about CBT when comparing it to drug therapy?
Answer
  • Drug therapy was more effective- improved functioning, lower relapse rates, reduced symptom severity
  • CBT was more effective- improved functioning, lower relapse rates, reduced symptom severity
  • CBT improved functioning, but drug therapy reduced symptom severity
  • CBT reduced symptom severity, but drug therapy improved functioning

Question 60

Question
[blank_start]Jauhar[blank_end] (2014) did a [blank_start]meta-analysis[blank_end] of CBT as a treatment for schizophrenia, and found it had [blank_start]a small[blank_end] therapeutic effect. Additionally, if researchers didn't know which patients were treated with CBT, the effect [blank_start]disappeared[blank_end], suggesting the researcher may have been actively looking for improvements when they knew who had been through CBT, so the improvements may be over-emphasised. This therefore indicates that CBT [blank_start]isn't[blank_end] as effective as previously suggested.
Answer
  • Jauhar
  • Fromm-Reichmann
  • NICE
  • Pharoah
  • meta-analysis
  • experiment
  • lab study
  • a small
  • no
  • a significant
  • disappeared
  • was enhanced
  • isn't
  • is

Question 61

Question
Which two of the below statements are evaluative statements about CBT?
Answer
  • CBT doesn't produce negative side effects like drug therapy
  • CBT can effectively cure schizophrenia
  • CBT is more expensive in the short term than drug therapy
  • CBT is liable to produce long term negative side effects
  • CBT has been proven to be ineffective in producing any therapeutic effect

Question 62

Question
[blank_start]Family[blank_end] therapy aims to improve faulty communication in families, specifically treating [blank_start]negative[blank_end] expressed emotion (hostility, criticism, emotional over-involvement). It involves the presence of [blank_start]all[blank_end] family members, and all must be [blank_start]completely[blank_end] open. Strategies to improve communication include [blank_start]removing[blank_end] burden of care (sharing care of schizophrenic family member), removing feelings of guilt, and [blank_start]decreasing[blank_end] negative forms of communication.
Answer
  • Family
  • Drug
  • negative
  • positive
  • all
  • some
  • most
  • completely
  • mostly
  • somewhat
  • removing
  • increasing
  • acknowledging
  • decreasing
  • increasing
  • acknowledging
  • identifying

Question 63

Question
Name 3 aims of the strategies used in family therapy
Answer
  • Reduce relapse rates
  • Increase compliance to medication
  • Reduce stress
  • Increase admission to hospital
  • Induce stress
  • Stabilise relapse rates
  • Decrease compliance to medication

Question 64

Question
Pharoah (2010) found that [blank_start]family therapy[blank_end] [blank_start]increased[blank_end] compliance to medication and therefore [blank_start]decreased[blank_end] relapse rates.
Answer
  • family therapy
  • CBT
  • drug therapy
  • increased
  • decreased
  • decreased
  • increased

Question 65

Question
Pick three evaluative statements for family therapy as a treatment for schizophrenia
Answer
  • Improvements in functioning may be due to drug therapy
  • Improvements in functioning may be due to CBT
  • Improves negative symptoms such as social withdrawal
  • Improves positive symptoms such as hallucinations
  • Families don't always want to be honest
  • Families typically will be fully open

Question 66

Question
Token economies are a form of management for schizophrenia, used to [blank_start]modify[blank_end] maladaptive symptoms caused by [blank_start]institutionalisation[blank_end]. It is based on [blank_start]operant[blank_end] conditioning and is useful for [blank_start]long[blank_end] term patients in psychiatric wards. Clinicians develop a list of behaviours that they believe will improve a patient's engagement in daily life, such as getting out of bed or brushing teeth. If a patient carries out this behaviour, they are [blank_start]immediately[blank_end] rewarded with a token ([blank_start]secondary[blank_end] reinforcer) which can be exchanged for a reward such as sweets or magazines.
Answer
  • modify
  • increase
  • identify
  • institutionalisation
  • operationalisation
  • internalisation
  • operant
  • classical
  • long
  • short
  • immediately
  • later
  • secondary
  • primary

Question 67

Question
Azran and Ayllan (1968) did a study into the effectiveness of [blank_start]token economies[blank_end]. They studied [blank_start]female[blank_end] patients in a psychiatric wards and found that those who did token economy systems [blank_start]exhibited[blank_end] the desired behaviours set by clinicians, suggesting token economy [blank_start]is[blank_end] effective.
Answer
  • token economies
  • family therapy
  • drug therapy
  • CBT
  • female
  • male
  • child
  • exhibited
  • didn't exhibit
  • is
  • isn't

Question 68

Question
Pick 3 evaluative statements for token economy
Answer
  • Not effective long term- high relapse rates
  • Effective long term- low relapse rates
  • Unethical- rewards were basic human rights
  • Patients are more active, so staff respect them more
  • Effectively cures schizophrenia

Question 69

Question
The interactionist approach to schizophrenia This approach suggests that the interaction of 3 main factors causes the onset of schizophrenia 1. [blank_start]Biological[blank_end]: genes, dopamine hypothesis, neural correlates 2. [blank_start]Psychological[blank_end]: stress, anxiety, poor cognitive functioning 3. [blank_start]Social[blank_end]: family dysfunction
Answer
  • Biological
  • Philosophical
  • Psychological
  • Psycho-pathological
  • Social
  • Sociological
  • Cognitive

Question 70

Question
The diathesis-stress model [blank_start]Diathesis[blank_end]: vulnerability [blank_start]Stressor[blank_end]: trigger Original diathesis-stress model for schizophrenia Diathesis: [blank_start]genetic[blank_end] vulnerability- the schizogene (one gene which leads to development of the schizotypic personality, characterised by sensitivity to stress) Stressor: [blank_start]environmental[blank_end] trigger- stress in childhood e.g. schizophrenogenic mother Modern diathesis-stress model Diathesis: [blank_start]not necessarily[blank_end] a genetic vulnerability, and multiple genes are involved. Psychological trauma can also cause vulnerability Stressor: the stressor is [blank_start]not necessarily[blank_end] just psychological, it is simply any factor which increases the risk of the onset of schizophrenia e.g. smoking cannabis
Answer
  • Diathesis
  • Stressor
  • Stressor
  • Diathesis
  • genetic
  • psychological
  • traumatic
  • environmental
  • psychological
  • genetic
  • not necessarily
  • always
  • not necessarily
  • always

Question 71

Question
What is the most common combination of treatments in the interactonist approach?
Answer
  • CBT+ family therapy
  • Drug therapy+ CBT
  • Family therapy+ token economy
  • Drug therapy+ token economy

Question 72

Question
Houston (2008) concluded that childhood sexual trauma created vulnerability for schizophrenia, while cannabis use acted as the trigger. However, this research has been criticised. What is a limitation of the findings?
Answer
  • Not all schizophrenics experience childhood sexual trauma or cannabis use- not a full explanation
  • Smoking cannabis may be a symptom of schizophrenia, not the trigger
  • External factors such as smoking play no role in the onset of schizophrenia, according to the interactionist approach

Question 73

Question
Which researcher found that adopted children with schizophrenic biological mothers and with adoptive mothers that showed high levels of negative expressed emotion were more likely to develop schizophrenia themselves, hence supporting the interactionist approach?
Answer
  • Tienari et al.
  • NICE
  • Houston et al.
  • Meehl

Question 74

Question
What did Tienari's research suggest about the interactionist approach?
Answer
  • That children with a genetic vulnerability and a childhood characterised by negative expressed emotion were most likely to develop schizophrenia- both a vulnerability and a trigger is needed
  • That children with a genetic vulnerability but a normal childhood were most likely to develop schizophrenia- vulnerability is needed, but not a trigger
  • That children with a childhood characterised by negative expressed emotion were most likely to develop schizophrenia- trigger is needed, but not a genetic vulnerability

Question 75

Question
Name limitations of Tienari's study of the interactionist approach
Answer
  • It blames the mother
  • It is subjective- assessment of child-rearing style
  • Cultural relativism- child rearing style varies in different countries
  • It blames the entire family
  • It is too objective- use of statistics and lab studies
  • Gender bias- only studied male children with their mothers

Question 76

Question
Which researcher carried out a study into interactionist treatment for schizophrenia in which one group received medication and CBT, one group received medication and support counselling, and one group received just medication, and found the 2 combination groups showed greater reduction in symptoms compared to the medication. These findings also indicated that schizophrenia isn't solely biological.
Answer
  • Tarrier
  • Tienari
  • Fromm-Reichmann
  • Houston
  • Ripke

Question 77

Question
'While research such as Tarrier's support the interactionist approach, it is possible that the cause of schizophrenia is not necessarily an interaction between biological and psychological. It is difficult to tell if, in the experiments where effectiveness of interactionist treatments is measured, it is actually just one treatment making the difference. We cannot be entirely sure, therefore, whether an interaction between the two factors is the cause of schizophrenia.' Is this statement true or false?
Answer
  • True
  • False
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