What was Neurology like before the 1800s? Descriptive (versus Functional) Post Mortem Dissection. What was neurology like after the 1800s? Functional Neuropathy aimed to describe the function of the different nervous system parts. Imaging Techniques were developed much later. What was Phrenology? Promulgated by Franz Joseph Gall in the 1800s. Memory Device: "Friendology," a sad story. He believed that certain areas were responsible for certain functions in the brain. He also figured that the brain was like a muscle, where a function became stronger by exercising it. He promoted the study of people's skulls, especially bulging parts, to determine the individual's psychology. They were often used for background checks. His reasoning was based on "logic," really intuition. He reasoned for musical ability based off of Mozart's pose in many pictures, where he is touching a certain part of his head. Phrenology was later used by Hitler in his plan for the master race. Phrenology remained popular in America long after it ceased to be so in Europe, where Phrenology Machines were a popular attraction at one point. http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/phrenology/phrenology_frames.html
What did Paul Broca do? Memory Device: 1861 He discovered Broca's Aphasia, a condition caused by damage to the left frontal lobe in 1861. It is also called Motor/Expressive Aphasia. He suggested Assymetry of Hemispheric Function (Lateralization) Unlike Gall, this was actual evidence of localization. What did Carl Wernicke do? Memory Device: 1874 He discovered Wernicke's Aphasia, a condition caused by damage to the posterior part of the temporal lobe. It is associated with poor hearing comprehension, as well as mistaken speech output. The patient is often unaware of their errors. What did Ludwig Lichtheim do? Elaborated on Wernicke's discoveries Proposed the Locationist Connectionist Theory What was the Clinicopathological Method? By assuming that behavioral dysfunctions are the result of brain lesion at a particular site, proponents picked out patterns to make generalizations about people suffering from these lesions. They relied on naturally occurring damage. What are some issues with this approach? Memory Device: Maggie the Brain Changes may be nonspecific. (i.e. depression) Connections could also be damaged Brain Plasticity allows for healing Damaged area may be affecting more than one spot, being associated with others. What is the Equipotential Theory? Moses Memory Story Proposed by Karl Lashley, popularized early 20th century. Mental Function NOT localized; the brain work as a whole. It was based on memory in animals. Experiments demonstrated that it was the amount of brain removed and not the location that affected their memory.
What was wrong with post-Mortem dissection? Changes occur after death Changed occurred to the patient's brain over time Is it still used? Yes. Often in Alzheimer patients to confirm diagnosis. What is electro-stimulation also called? Brain Mapping How was it developed? To cure Epilepsy patients. What would happen? They would describe memories in a stream of consciousness manner. What was Penfield's conclusion? That people were describing past memories, like a record player. But this is uncertain. What did he develop that was important? Brain Mapping, also called the Homonculus. What theory did his work contradict? The Equipotential Theory.