Chapter 3: The British Atlantic World: 1660-1750


A.P. U.S. History (APUSH Final Exam Prep) Note on Chapter 3: The British Atlantic World: 1660-1750, created by midnightmusichjw on 20/04/2016.
Note by midnightmusichjw, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by midnightmusichjw over 7 years ago

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Glorious Revolution: A coup in 1688 in which James II of England was overthrown by William of Orange. Whig politicians forced the new King William and Queen Mary to accept the Declaration of Rights, creating a constitutional monarchy that enhanced the powers of the House of Commons at the expense of the crown. It was an overthrow of Catholicism as much as James II.Stono Rebellion: Slave uprising in 1739 along the Stono River in South Carolina in which a group of slaves armed themselves, plundered six plantations, and killed 20+ colonists. Colonists quickly suppressed the rebellion.proprietorship: A colony created through a grant of land from the English monarch to an individual or group, who then set up a form of government largely independent from royal control.Pennsylvania: Granted to William Penn in 1681, who made the colony a refuge for Quakers.Quakers: Formerly persecuted in England for refusal to serve in the military or pay taxes to support the Church of England, they found a home in Pennsylvania. They exemplified simple spirituality and idealized freedom and peace.Navigation Acts: English laws passed, beginning in the 1650s and 1660s, requiring that certain English colonial goods be shipped through English ports on English ships manned primarily by English sailors in order to benefit English merchants, shippers, and seamen.Dominion of New England: A royal province created by King James II in 1686 that would have absorbed Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New York, and New Jersey into a single, vast colony and eliminated their assemblies and other chartered rights. James' plan was canceled by the Glorious Revolution in 1689 and the dominion was overthrown.Second Hundred Years' War: An era of warfare beginning with the War of the League of Augsburg in 1689 and lasting until the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815. In that time, England fought in seven major wars.tribalization: The adaptation of stateless peoples to the demands imposed on them by neighboring states.Iroquois devised a strategy for playing French and English interests off against each other after an English alliance failed them and French settlers burned their villages.Covenant Chain: The alliance between the Iroquois and New York.South Atlantic System: A new agricultural and commercial order that produced sugar, tobacco, rice, and other tropical and subtropical products for an international market. Its plantation societies were ruled by English planter-merchants and worked by hundreds of enslaved Africans. Its center was in Brazil and the West Indies, where sugar was its prime product.Atlantic Slave Trade: Made slaving a favorite tactic of ambitious kings and plundering warlords.Middle Passage: The brutal sea voyage from Africa to the Americas that took the lives of nearly two million enslaved Africans.Chesapeake: A tobacco colony. Tobacco cultivation required steadier and less demanding labor in a more temperate environment. Quarters were less crowded and slaves were treated less harshly, as tobacco profits were lower and therefore planters had less to lose. Family relationships were able to be made here with less deaths and trades.South Carolina: Slaves here in the rice colony labored under oppressive conditions, as rice was a killer crop that demanded strenuous labor in a tropical climate. Extracting rice from inland swamps was dangerous work that resulted in death by disease and exhaustion.gentility: A refined but elaborate upper class white lifestyle.The West Indian trade created the first American urban industries. Wealthy merchants dominated the social life of seaport cities.salutary neglect: Pleased by growing trade and import duties, Britain relaxed their supervision of internal colonial affairs..patronage: The practice of giving offices and salaries to political allies.Molasses Act of 1733: Ignoring Britain's rivalry with France, colonial merchants sold their produce to the French sugar islands. When American rum distillers began to buy cheap molasses from the French islands, the act was passed. It placed a high tariff on French molasses, so high that it would no longer be profitable to import banks: Lent paper money to farmers who pledged their land as collateral for the loans.

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