Police Accountability / Victims / Crime Prev


Note on Police Accountability / Victims / Crime Prev, created by bronwyn.gunn19 on 15/04/2013.
Note by bronwyn.gunn19, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by bronwyn.gunn19 about 11 years ago

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Police Accountability - How not adequate                                      - How could have limitationsPolice Authority Greater London 1999Police were directly accountable but no thoughts to local populus needs The national crime squad was established to deal with cross boarder issuesPolice Force made of multiple entities Reforms and Statutes to enable an accountable force.HRA 1991 Police were held accountable because of being public authority and compensation ordered when breached duty ART 6 - Fair Trial If the UK courts didnt hear the case it could be taken up to the EU courts.Statutes and Reforms make a powerful frame in which police are held accountableUN Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement 1999Police should be held accountable when reasonable force was overused

Police Act 1976Police Complaints board - OLD IPCC was not deemed as sufficiently independant or robust Corrupt Lord Scarman He wanted a reform with the outcome of a new agency seperate of the Police To restore public confidence in the Police Any breach by the police is directly accountable under HRA 1999The new IPCC had ne recruitment and investigates claims of Ultra Vires on behalf of the police ICV - independant custody visitors Visit police Departments View suites / check on the accussed to see if they are treated fairly

Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 Failure to follow procedure can result in no conviction and evidence can be held as inadmisable - S.78 PACE 1984PACE governs how police caution Audit commission Independant body established to monitor finance those who do not fir the bill will be questioned Police Preformnce Assessment Framework Holds accountable police forces for poor preformance if targets are not met

R v Confait - Whereby a Homosexual Prostitute was murdered and two boys were held for questioning found to be Mentally Handicapped but were not allowed rights / call / respective guardian Case was quashed - Failure by police procedures

Victims - How could be invisible?              - How could be a key player ?              -  How could they not be invisble?Two Strands of victimisation Positivist - Mawby - No real definition of what a real victim is Hard to distinguish what a victim isPositivist - What factors contribute to victimisation Critical - Walkate - Labelling and Rational             - Christie - Weak / Young / Couldnt be blamed There are charities and services which help support victims.Victim Support - VS  Charity based scheme in which helps  deal with supportIt looks at the crime. But not the social aspect of why crime can exist  

Procedural Rights - VPS  Victim Personal Statement (2001)Personal Statement about how the crime could affect the person This can be emotional / Physical / Psychological Ads -Closely Related with the case Ads - Affect Sentence Dis - ads - Paperwork Dis - ads - Judge could ignore it Sanders et al 1999Victims were disapointed with the VPSJudges do not have to read the paperwork, the VPS goes into the case papers. Erez 2008Expectations were not what the outcome wasPossibly expectations too high

The Pigot Committee Children were seen to be most vulnerable, and thus children were not believed by the police Not invisible the children are not believed Jane Morgan Children would suffer greatly from cross examination The CJS does not benefit the victim The policy is based around crime not the victim

Duty of care Individual / organisation could be sued by breach / negligence. Hill v CC Yorkshire 1988 Police were not deemed to owe a duty of care for a single person Von Colle v CC Herefordshire 2008 Police were deemed to be accountable for duty of care because the police had been warned of threats. Provisions Domestic Violence Crime + Victims Act 2004 Failure to preform duty of care - Court Action Prisoners Earning Act 2011 Pay towards victims services

Compensation Goodey 2004 - Moral Duty / Legal Duty Compensation is aimed at deserving victims

Situational Crime Prevention -techniques most preferable to situational approaches?-most effective way of preventing crime?There are five strands SCP - Measures which involve change of design           to stop crimeSCP looks at crime itself but not why crime is committedOrginates from Defensible Space - Oscar Newman Changing the way land was designed and used. Surveillance - Looking over land Territory - Designted land - Gated Image - Design View

Displacement - Movement of a crime                          from one area to anotherBenign - Wanted displacement - Movingprostitutes to another area  Malign - Unintended displacement - Burglary to another area Criticisms - Exaggerate crime                 - Relies too heavenly on tech                 - What crime not why

RV - Repeat Victimisation Home Office - Same person / Place which suffers from more crime than once Bottoms - Anyone can be a victim Some victims could be Flag - Shown as attractive - Clues Some victims could be Boosts - Known as an easy Target - Easy

RV - InitativesBronze - 1st - Prop Marking Silver - 2nd - Loan Equipment Gold - 3rd -AlarmsPartnerships Morgan - Community Safety Paramount -Local authorites contribute to tackling crime Agencies talk to victim to see what is needed.Kirkholt - Forrester Rochdale - Burglary Prevention2 phases many aims Cocoon NW School and work projects Payment meter removal Dont know what created the 49% reduction.

Social Methods Chronic Offenders - Worral A study found that those who went through scheme had lower amount of convictions than those who ddidntEarly Intervention Scheme - HomelScheme aimed at 3+ was good Showed right from wrong BUT as child growns social pressure is issue Desistance - RumgayOffenders choice to stop committing crime. Needs help from people to show it is good to stop crime Mentoring - No known definition

Police Strategies Police Crackdowns Used to nip prject in the bud More visible presence - less crime Deterrence Initial - As crackdown starts - D Starts Residual - Crack down finishes - ROpperation BumblebeeInitivative to stop burglary Stop and Search / Monitoring Reduced Burglary Cleaning up CasesPrimary - Charged / summons / cautionsSecondary - Take O to site Pulses Good - Good publicity / Good Presence Bad - Low Publicity / Large Area

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