Vegetable Oils


Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry (Emulsions and Plant Oils) Note on Vegetable Oils, created by oliviasmithx on 10/11/2013.
Note by oliviasmithx, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by oliviasmithx over 10 years ago

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Unsaturated vegetable oils are usually liquids at room temperature, This is because carbon-carbon double bonds in the molecules stop the molecules fitting together very well.

The boiling and melting points of these oils can be increased by adding hydrogen to the molecules. The reaction replaces some or all of the carbon-carbon double bonds with carbon-carbon single bonds.

This helps the molecules to fit next to each other better. To make this reaction happen a nickel catalyst is used and a temperature of 60 degrees celcius.

Oils that have been treated like this are called hydrogenated oils. Because they are solids at room temperature, it means that they can be made into spreads to be put onto bread.

Extracting lavender oil Lavender plants are put into a flask. Steam is passed into the flask. Lavender oil and water evaporate. Lavender oil and steam are condensed Lavender oil and water are collected Lavender oil separates from water.

Extracting Olive Oil From Olives Olives are collected from olive trees. The olives are crushed. The mixture is pressed The mixture is allowed to stand Water is added and then the mixture is stirred Olive oil and water are obtained Olive oil separates from the water The olive oil is put into bottles.

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