Diabetes Mellitus


Mind Map on Diabetes Mellitus, created by Laelle D on 17/05/2017.
Laelle D
Mind Map by Laelle D, updated more than 1 year ago
Laelle D
Created by Laelle D almost 7 years ago

Resource summary

Diabetes Mellitus
  1. A condition where the body can't produce enough insulin to control the blood glucose concentration
    1. Hypoglycaemia
      1. After a meal rich in carbohydrates + sugars
      2. Hyperglycaemia
        1. After exercising or fasting
        2. TYPE 1
          1. Causes
            1. From childhood
              1. Autoimmune response; immune system attacks and destroys beta cells
                1. = Beta cells unable to produce insulin, so excess glucose cant be converted into glycogen (glycogenesis)
                  1. Prolonged high blood glucose concentration- hyperglycaemia
                    1. Also hypoglycaemia; no stored glycogen to be converted into glucose (glycogenolysis) -when blood glucose levels lower
              2. Treatment
                1. Insulin is injected
                  1. Blood glucose conc. must be monitored so the correct dosage of insulin is administered to keep levels relatively stable
                    1. Not taken in tablet form as this may be digested into amino acids!
                    2. Alternatives to injections
                      1. Insulin pump therapy- small device constantly pumps insulin into blood via. permanent needle inserted under skin
                        1. Pancreas transplant
                          1. Islet of Langerhans transplant; beta cells implanted into pancreas of type 1 sufferer
                      2. TYPE 2
                        1. Causes
                          1. Person can't produce enough insulin
                            1. As we age, we also become less responsive to insulin
                              1. Possibly because, the insulin receptors on liver, muscle + brain cells become less responsive to insulin, so it doesn't produce a response in the cell
                                1. Blood glucose conc. are almost permanently raised (hyperglycaemia), which can cause damage to major organs + circulation
                            2. Factors that bring on type 2
                              1. Obesity
                                1. Diets rich in sugars (especially refined sugars)
                                  1. Lack of regular exercise
                                    1. Being of Asian/Afro-carribean descent
                                      1. Family history
                                    2. Treatment
                                      1. Lifestyle changes; regular exercise, lose weight, monitor diet (less carbs + sugars)
                                        1. May be supplemented by medication...
                                          1. That reduces the amount of glucose in blood
                                            1. or boosts the amount of insulin released by beta cells
                                          2. In severe cases; insulin injections or injections that slow the absorption of glucose
                                      2. Source of insulin
                                        1. Used to be extracted from animals; pigs- (closely matches our insulin)
                                          1. Now human insulin is produced by GM E.coli becateria
                                            1. Less moral objections; than from animals extracted insulin
                                              1. Cheaper to manufacture insulin than extract it
                                                1. Exact copy of human insulin; faster acting + more effective
                                                  1. Manufacturing process can be adapted to demand
                                                    1. Less chances of being infected
                                                      1. Less chance of rejecting; due to an autoimmune response or developing tolerance to it
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