A2 Chemistry OCR Definitions: Rates, acids and enthalpy

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NB: Not official list of definitions, these are only ones I have in my notes
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Ollie O'Keeffe
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A2 Chemistry OCR Definitions: Rates, acids and enthalpy
  1. Enthalpy change
    1. Enthalpy change of atomisation
      1. The enthalpy change when 1 mole of gaseous atoms forms the element at 298K, 101kPa
      2. 1st Ionisation energy
        1. The energy needed to remove 1 electron from every atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms, to form 1+ ions
          1. 2nd Ionisation energy
            1. Energy needed to remove the second electron from every atom in 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions
          2. Lattice enthalpy
            1. The enthalpy change when 1 mole of an ionic compound is formed from its gaseous ions, at 298K, 101kPa
            2. Enthalpy change of formation
              1. The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a compound is formed from its elements, at 298K, 101 kPa
              2. Standard enthalpy of electron affinity
                1. Enthalpy change when 1 electron is gained by every atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms, to form 1- ions
                  1. NB: 1st EA always exothermic, 2nd & 3rd always endothermic
                  2. Enthalpy change of solution
                    1. Enthalpy change when 1 mole of an ionic compound dissolves in sufficient water to make a very dilute solution, at 298K, 101kPa
                      1. NB: Exothermic = Soluble
                      2. Enthalpy change of hydration
                        1. The enthalpy change when 1 mole of gaseous ions dissolves in sufficient water to form a very dilute solution
                        2. Enthalpy of neutralisation
                          1. Enthalpy change when enough acid/alkali is neutralised to make 1 mole H2O
                        3. Hess' Law
                          1. The enthalpy change going from reactant to product is independent of the route taken
                          2. Acids/bases
                            1. Acid
                              1. Proton donor
                              2. Base
                                1. Proton acceptor
                                2. Strong acid
                                  1. One that ionises fully
                                  2. Weak acid
                                    1. One that only partially ionises
                                    2. Conjugate acid/base pairs
                                      1. A conjugate acid becomes its own conjugate base when it gives a H+ to another base. Vice versa for base
                                        1. NB: If conj. acid is v/ strong, conj. base is v/ weak
                                      2. Kw
                                        1. Ionic product of water
                                          1. NB: 1x10-4
                                          2. pH
                                            1. -log(Concentration of H+)
                                            2. Ka
                                              1. Acid dissociation constant
                                              2. Indicators
                                                1. Weak acids which have 2 colours (one for acid, one for its conj. base)
                                                2. Buffer
                                                  1. A system that minimises pH changes on addition of moderate amounts of acid/alkali
                                                  2. Rates
                                                    1. Rate of Reaction
                                                      1. How the concentration of a reactant decreases over time
                                                      2. Order
                                                        1. The power to which we raise the conc. of a particular reactant in a rate equation
                                                        2. Rate constant (k)
                                                          1. The proportionality constant in a rate equation
                                                          2. Rate Determining Step (RDS)
                                                            1. The slowest step in a reaction mechanism (series of reactions not shown in overall reaction)
                                                              1. Determines overall rate
                                                              2. Half-life
                                                                1. The time taken for the concentration of a reactant to halve
                                                              3. Free energy (ΔG)
                                                                1. The balance between enthalpy, entropy and temperature for a process
                                                                  1. NB: Reaction is spontaneous is ΔG<0
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