B1 Biology

Description

The first module of the Year 10 Biology Higher tier. Key points from this module are bought together in a mind map. Suggested use for revision.
Emily Needham
Mind Map by Emily Needham, updated more than 1 year ago
Emily Needham
Created by Emily Needham about 10 years ago
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Resource summary

B1 Biology
  1. B1a Fitness and Health
    1. Measuring Health
      1. BMI (Body Mass Index)
        1. Indicator of whether your weight is ideal or not in terms of your height
          1. Weight (kg) divided by height (m squared)
            1. Underweight= Below 18 Normal= 18-24 Overweight= 25-30 Obese= 30+
          2. EAR (Estimated Average Requirement)
            1. How much protein you require in your diet
              1. Two protein types
                1. Second Class (plants)
                  1. First Class (animals)
                  2. Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease)
                  3. Mass(kg)x 0.6
                2. Obesity
                  1. Can cause...
                    1. Stroke
                      1. Cancer
                        1. Heart Disease
                          1. Arthritis
                            1. Type 2 diabetes
                          2. Blood Pressure
                            1. Systolic and Diastolic
                              1. Systolic= pressure created in arteries when heart contracts
                                1. Diastolic= pressure created in arteries when heart relaxes
                                2. Caused by....
                                  1. Salt
                                    1. smoking
                                      1. Obesity
                                        1. alcohol (long term)
                                          1. lack of exercise
                                            1. stress
                                              1. saturated fat
                                                1. promote LDL production
                                                  1. Causes plaque build up in arteries
                                                    1. LDL= bad cholesterol
                                                    2. Polyunsaturated fat
                                                      1. promotes HDL (good cholesterol)
                                                        1. stops plaque build up
                                                2. B1b Non Infectious Disease
                                                  1. Cannot be caught by other organisms or be created by microbes
                                                    1. Causes...
                                                      1. mutations in DNA
                                                        1. Diet
                                                          1. Body parts disfunctional
                                                          2. reduce the risk by...
                                                            1. Exercise
                                                              1. Reducing alcohol intake
                                                                1. Healthy diet
                                                                  1. Not Smoking
                                                                    1. Healthy weight
                                                                    2. Examples
                                                                      1. Ricketts
                                                                        1. Heart Disease
                                                                          1. Cancer
                                                                            1. Benign Tumour
                                                                              1. passive
                                                                                1. Less likely to spread
                                                                                2. Malignant Tumour
                                                                                  1. aggressive
                                                                                    1. more likely to break up and spread
                                                                              2. B1c Infectious Disease
                                                                                1. Pathogens
                                                                                  1. Fungus
                                                                                    1. Bacteria
                                                                                      1. Virus
                                                                                        1. Protozoa
                                                                                        2. Organisms involved
                                                                                          1. Vector
                                                                                            1. Spreads disease without being affected
                                                                                            2. Host
                                                                                              1. organism affected by parasite
                                                                                              2. parasite
                                                                                                1. lives off another organism
                                                                                              3. Body defends against it by...
                                                                                                1. Tears
                                                                                                  1. cillia and mucus
                                                                                                    1. skin
                                                                                                      1. scabs
                                                                                                        1. stomach acid
                                                                                                        2. Can be spread...
                                                                                                          1. through the air
                                                                                                            1. through breathing
                                                                                                              1. Through touch
                                                                                                                1. through bodily fluids
                                                                                                                  1. through ingestion
                                                                                                                    1. through water
                                                                                                                      1. through animals
                                                                                                                    2. B1d The Nervous System
                                                                                                                      1. The eye
                                                                                                                        1. Parts
                                                                                                                          1. Lens
                                                                                                                            1. Pupil
                                                                                                                              1. Conjunctiva
                                                                                                                                1. Cornea
                                                                                                                                  1. Iris
                                                                                                                                    1. Cilliary Muscle
                                                                                                                                      1. suspensory ligament
                                                                                                                                        1. Retina
                                                                                                                                          1. fovea
                                                                                                                                            1. optic nerve
                                                                                                                                              1. Blind Spot
                                                                                                                                              2. Monocular
                                                                                                                                                1. Eyes on side
                                                                                                                                                  1. Wider field of view but less focusing
                                                                                                                                                    1. found in prey organisms
                                                                                                                                                      1. eg. rabbits, zebras and sheep
                                                                                                                                                      2. Binocular
                                                                                                                                                        1. eyes at front
                                                                                                                                                          1. good focusing and distance judgement as smaller field of view
                                                                                                                                                            1. eg. humans, lions and dogs
                                                                                                                                                            2. Correcting vision
                                                                                                                                                              1. Short sightedness
                                                                                                                                                                1. Concave lens corrects
                                                                                                                                                                2. Long Sightedness
                                                                                                                                                                  1. convex lens creates
                                                                                                                                                              2. Nerves
                                                                                                                                                                1. Central Nervous system
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Brain
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Spinal chord
                                                                                                                                                                    2. Neurones
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Sensory
                                                                                                                                                                        1. relay
                                                                                                                                                                          1. motor
                                                                                                                                                                          2. Voluntary actions
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Involuntary actions
                                                                                                                                                                              1. reflex arc
                                                                                                                                                                          3. B1e Drugs
                                                                                                                                                                            1. legal
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Alcohol
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Short term effects
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Blurred vision
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Impaired Speech, judgement and balance.
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. drowsiness and increased reaction times
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. long term effects
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. cirrhosis of the liver
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. brain damage
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. weight gain
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. fatty liver, heart disease, cancer etc.
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. tobacco
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. contains...
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Carbon monoxide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. heart rate increases
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. saturates red blood cells
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. not enough oxygen gets to cells
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Nicotene
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Addictive
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. increases heart rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Particulates
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. collects in lung tissue
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. white cells ingest them and release enzyme
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Enzyme damages alveoli
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Leads to EMPHYSEMA
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Tar
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. irritates airways
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. contains 1000s of chemicals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. carcinogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. destroys cillia
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Illegal
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Class...
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. heroin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. cocaine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. LSD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. B
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. cannabis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. amphetamines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. tranquilisers eg. ketamin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. painkillers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. B1f Control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Body Temperature
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. 37 degrees celcius
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. hot weather
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Vaso dilation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. blood vessels expand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. lose body heat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. heat lost by radiation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. sweating cools skin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. cold weather
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Vaso constriction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. blood vessels get smaller
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. keep body heat in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. little heat loss from radiation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. sweating stops
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. Blood Sugar levels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Insulin converts glucose to glycogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Diabetes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Type 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. pancreas can't create insulin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Insulin Injections, pancreas stimulating drugs, balanced diet and exercise
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Type 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. body's cells don't respond to insulin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. Carbon Dioxide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. breathing rate increases/ decreases depending on level of Carbon Dioxide in blood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4. B1g Plant growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Plants respond to stimuli
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. PHOTOTROPISM (response to light)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. shoots= positively phototrophic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. roots= negatively phototrophic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Plants bend towards light because of auxins (plant hormones
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. GEOTROPISM (response to gravity)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Roots= positively Geotropic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Shoots= negatively geotropic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Uses of plant hormones
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. root hormone- helps new cuttings make roots
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. fruit ripening properly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. control and break dormancy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. B1h Variation and Inheritance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Genetic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Eye Colour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. tongue rolling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Hair colour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Environmental
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. scars
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. language
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Accent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Both
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. weight
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. sporting ability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. intelligence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Genes and Chromosomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. humans have 23 matching pairs of chromosomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. made from DNA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. thread like structures in a cells nucleus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Gene is a section of a chromosome
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. controls development of a characteristic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. Genetic Variation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. caused by...
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. mutations (change in base sequence)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. gamete formation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. fertilisation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Inheritance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Inheritance of gender
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Male
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. carry XY chromosomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. A Sperm carrying a Y chromosome ferttilises an egg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Y chromosome carries SRY which causes testes to develop in an XY embryo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Female
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. A sperm carrying an X chromosome fertilises an egg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Carry XX chromosomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Dominant and recessive alleles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. genotypes and phenotypes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Inherited Disorders
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. homozygous= both alleles are the same
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. heterozygous= 2 different alleles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. examples
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Colour blindness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Huntingtons
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Downs Syndrome
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Cystic Fibrosis
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