'A moon wrapped in
brown paper'; 'Its platinum
loops shrink to a wedding
ring'; 'It promises light'; 'It
will blind you with tears';
'Cling to your knife'
suggest harm if
not treated well,
The poem shows a
the speaker to the
symbols of love
'Not a red rose or a
The repetition of 'it will'
suggests that the recipient is
not beliieving the gift,and she is
having to force her message to
Rubbish at Adultery
Theme of disappointment
in an affair, with an angry
and annoyed tone
Shows a mainly physical
relationship, or the desire
for it 'I'm after passion,
thrills and fun.'
Alternate Rhyme: Starts good, ends bad.
You cannot love and you cannot be
The Speaker talks about how she
wants to be important, but always
comes after his wife. 'Just leave
them out of this?'
Each stanza shows a new
complaint,and the speaker fears
'we've lost our common goal'.
Scheme ABAB for every
4 lines, then rhyming
couplet for final 2 lines
Stating simple facts, and
two peoples love fitting
together so well
Every 4 Lines: 1st; Describing what
'love is not'; 2nd; What it is 'O, no!'
'ever-fixed mark'; 3rd; Shows love is
constant 'bears it out even to the edge
Last two lines: 'If this be an error, upon me proved,/ I
never writ, nor no man ever loved.' If Shakespeare is
wrong, he was never a writer and no man has ever
loved. So sure of himself.
Sonnet, Italian: little song,
traditionally love poems.
Our Love Now
The poem represents different
attitudes towards a relationship, a
male (optimistic) and female
(pessimistic) side. Both have equal
oppurtunity to talk
No rhyme scheme
Freedom of speech,
and can speak truthfully
Has 8 different verses which can be read in
different ways. The females point of view
seems to be a contradictory to the males.
The male uses sense 'observe' 'listen'. Suggesting
he feels that what he says is right and it is evident.
The female uses 'Although' 'After' Showing that she
can see something different.
The structure of the seperate paragraphs
shows no unity, rhythm or harmony
between the couple.
Everything is painful, rough and broken.
FORM 7 stanzas, so strict length in
stanza or sentence. Represents a
relaxed relationships like a 'canival'
STRUCTURE Starts 'Man I love/ but won't let you
devour' - Love to be loved? or Loves men? Word
'you' pronoun, specific? or all men? --- Ends 'And
keep to de motion/ of we own person/ality' Repeating
message, keep to themselves, likes physical not
emotion. Move from one to the next man
LANGUAGE Uses Caribbean Creole,
emphasis of 'person/ality' Nichols just
wants the physical side of love; 'You be
banana/ I be avocado' but doesn't want to
stay attached ' But then/ Leh we break
Nichols shows that 'even tho' she
is female, she has equal physical
desires as men'
Lines to my Grandfathers
FORM The poem is an elegy (dedication) to Harrison's
Grandfathers.It follows a very strict alternate rhyme
scheme which suggests that his Grandfathers were
looked up to, and provided order. Harrison uses Double
spaced lines which suggests it is like a song, again a
STRUCTURE The poem is split into 4
parts; Wilkinson, Harrison, Horner, all
of the Grandfathers.
WILKINSON Is a farmer. The poem repeats the use of lines.
Wilkinson 'ploughed parallel as print'. It connotes that he left lines,
history and there is a story there.
HARRISON was a 'publican'. The poet gives shows this Grandfather
in an unfavourable light, and feels sorry for the Grandmother.
'Grandma slaved to tend the vat'- he had control over her. Harrison
also suggests he is self-loving. 'graced the rival bars' -shows a
sarcastic tone. It also shows that his job got him into toruble because
he may have been a heavy drinker. 'his knuckleduster, 'just in case''
shows that he might have needed protection. The direct speech
shows a lack of trust.
HORNER Is described as 'Grampa' which suggests
a closeness which he didn't have with the others. 'He
cobbled all our boots' suggests that he was caring
and loved, because he did things for them. However,
it also seems that he could be violent 'pulp and
squashed it falt'. It shows shapeless blood, which is
graphic and violent.
'I strive to keep my lines direct and straight' shows that
he doesn't want to lose his connections, and wants to
'make connections' to have some history.
'My present is propped open by their past' uses alliteration. It
implies that he has been formed and sculpted by their pasts.
FORM Sonnet, Alternate Rhyme. The poem talks about his reacion to his mother death. A sonnet is traditionally about love. It is only
through the form that we see compassion. The dedication to the form shows the dedication to his mother. However the lack of
iambic pentameter shows that there is less effort it rhythm, and the rhythm has been 'lost'
STRUCTURE The poem is cyclical, it starts and ends with the word 'glass'.
However at the start it is dark and the end it is clear. This connotes that
since his mother passing, there is a sense of truth found and realisation
that she is gone. It also implies that childhood is lost, and all the memories
are frozen and 'clear'
LANGUAGE 'I'm trapped inside that
empty space/ You float in when your
mother dies'. This line implies that
he is constantly trapped forever, and
there is no escape. The next line
shows that perhaps his mother is
now floating, and watching, maybe
even gloating. McMillan's childhood
has ended 'The stream dried up, the
smashed glass clear'. She has gone
and he could be regretting not 'loving'
her enough. He feels sorry for
himself for being left behind in the
dark 'And a lit plane drones in the
night's dark blue'.
Young 'clamped together'-
intense, and forced
Older 'the middle aged are
kissing in the back of taxis'
-more romantic, and lustful. It
is truthful and real
STRUCTURE Two stanzas,
representing young then old.
Shows natural progression in
love and how it changes over
'They've got all day' (young) 'They too may have
futures' (old) The older couple do have a whole
future together, whereas the young only have the
day and it might disappear.
1ST STANZA: 'clamped' forced
but can't be separated-not
romantic. extended metaphor of
'riverbank' cliched, detached
from reality. 'talk, stop talking,
kiss' shows contagion, and
2ND STANZA: Shows lust,
against stereotype. 'There
hands are not inside each
other's clothes/ (because of
the driver)- they are more
discrete but more
FORM Equal stanza
length, no one couple is
beer, the are the 'same;
couple at iffent times.
Jennings shows her parents
having lost the 'fire which I came',
and their separation
FORM 3 stanzas of 6
lines. Lines are equal, with
the use of iambic
pentameter for most lines.
This shows the monotony
within the relationship, and
it is boring and
STRUCTURE The title 'One
Flesh' and the first line ' Lying
apart now' shows a juxtaposition.
One Flesh connotes the biblical
term in the marriage vows. Which
represents life together as one. But
then 'lying apart' destroys this
the couple as
'flotsam from a
their love is lost,
The poet shows that the
couple knew that it would
come to this 'For which their
whole lives were a
preparation' it was
The poem has a religious
theme. 'Chastity' 'One
Christianity teaches that our 'duty' is to reproduce. The poet suggests that they have done that duty and now there lust is gone, even
though the mother has desires ('She like a girl dreaming of childhood'). The final line reads 'Whose fire from which I came has now grown
cold'. The question mark shows a sense of resentment and regret, and it is her fault?
FORM 1 stanza, alternate rhyme.
Implies that is is recurring, and is
something that won't stop. The strictness
of it shows the seriousness and reality to
STRUCTURE Again gives a
cyclical sense, and
repetition 'My son would
often feel sharp wounds
again' (last line).
LANGUAGE Semantic Field of war.
(Scannell fought in WWII , and had 6
children) 'regiment' 'blade' 'funeral
The poet personifies the nettles, and shows
compassion for the son. 'fallen dead'. The
pronoun 'my' gives a sense of belonging, and
care. The father wants to protect his son.
The audience can
Song for Last Year's Wife
FORM Dramatic Monologue. 25
lines, from one reader. Lack of
rhyme scheme could show
confusion, and there is no rhythm in
TITLE 'Song for Last Year's Wife'. 'Song' connotes positivity, and a
dedication to someone. This is contradicted by 'Last Year's wife.
Negative, and gives no real title. It is recurring? and he has got
used to it? The title objectifies the woman because she has no
name, making her seem disposable.
STRUCTURE The use of enjambment provides different
messages. The first line 'Alice, this is my first winter/ of waking
without you' . Before the line break, it seems like a new life a new
start, but then reveals that it is his first winter without her. It could
mean that 'Alice' was his life.
The Poem becomes increasingly sincere
further into the poem. 'I send out my spies/
to discover what you are doing'. It shows a
possessiveness and desperation. the
readers sympathy changes from him to
LANGUAGE The poem has a
semantic field of winter, frozen and
cold. Winter is the time of reflection,
resolutions and to be with family. For
him, it is a negative reflection and has
'winter' 'hard' 'ghost'
My Last Duchess
Browning shows a
chilling, cold cruelty.
'all smiles stopped'
FORM 56 equal length lines, no stanzas. Every two lines has a
rhyming couplet, and each line has iambic pentamter. this
shows how controlling the Duke was, and wanted structure and
order. 'Taming'. The use of enjambment means that the rhyme
is easy to miss. This suggests that no one from the outside
knew about the way he was controlling.
STRUCTURE The poem shows the painting in the first
line (something to rule over) , then goes on to tell how
she ended up dead, and then finally as something for
him to rule over. --Cyclical, has happened before.
talks about how
he couldn't tame
her, and shows
'my object' 'I
choose never to
The Duchess preferred natural
things, and was polite. 'white mule'
'orchard' 'cherries'. White mule
suggests she was nieve, pure and
innocent. And had no care for
material possessions. 'Such stuff/
Was courtesy, she thought, and
cause enough/ For calling that spot
of joy'- He wasnt the only one to
make her blush.
At the border, 1979
The poem is autobiographical
because it is the story of Hardi and
her family moving back to Iraq in 1979
FORM The poem takes no strict form,
line and stanza length vary. There are no
real rules, just the rules that someone
has randomly created, like the border.
line breaks are
arbitrary (follow no
rules)- reflects main
theme of the poem,
the borders/lines are
artificial and a person
or government has put
LANGUAGE Hardi shows that there is no
difference between each side of the border.
'The land under our feet continued' 'It rained on
both sides of the chain'. The final line is 'The
same chain of mountains encompasses all of
us'. The use of the word 'chain' suggest that
this is the natural border of mountains, and the
man made one can't break nature.
'encompasses' could suggest safety, or
The Habit of Light
FORM The poem is a sonnet, but it is
not traditional. There is no strict rhyme
scheme or iambic pentameter. This
could suggest that it is about
compassion and love, but because her
mother has died, there is no rhythm or
LANGUAGE The poet
personifies different homely
items to show her mother in
a positive light. 'saucepans
danced their lids, the kettle
The poet dedicates the poem to her
mother. There are lots of natural imagery
which provide warmth and positivity, and
gives a sense of place. 'oak floors'
'blackbird' 'bean rows' buttery melt of a pie'
The titles connotes different perspectives. 'Habit' could be a compulsive action, like keeping
the kitchen clean and shining to provide the light. Or it could connote religious robes, and
shows their dedicated relationship. The word light connotes a sense of truth and hope, which
could symbolise their relationship.
The poem is an elegy, a celebration of Clarke's
dead mother and shows the relationship between
character and home.
Pity me not because
the light of day
(Edna St. Vincent
FORM The poem is a sonnet which is traditionally about love.
The use of iambic pentameterand stirct rhyme scheme gives the
poem rhythm, and makes love seem natural.
STRUCTURE Most of the poem shows
cyclical forces of nature, and why the
reader shouldn't feel pity for her. She
'knew' that love is a cycle and it will fade.
The final two lines show how she wants
pity for being so naive, and not learning.
LANGUAGE Millay uses natural cycles to show that
love fades, and that is nature. 'light of day...no longer
walks the sky' 'beauties passed away' ' waning of the
moon' 'ebbing tide' These all show a cycle, that love
comes and disappears and that is how it is.
Millay repeatedly uses 'Pity me not' showing that she knew that this is how it was, and that she doesn't
need sympathy. However the final two lines use 'Pity me that the heart is slow to learn/ what the swift
mind beholds at every turn.' She wants pity for being so naive, and that she didn't accept her fate.