Sign Up for Free
terms and conditions
for more information.
Copy and Edit
You need to log in to complete this action!
Register for Free
Sign in here
A2 Geography- Energy Security
(Geography) Mind Map on A2 Geography- Energy Security, created by sophielee0909 on 20/01/2014.
No tags specified
Mind Map by
, updated more than 1 year ago
almost 10 years ago
A2 Geography- Energy Security
ENERGY SUPPLY,DEMAND & SECURITY
TYPES OF ENERGY SOURCE
85% of energy supply from fossil fuels (coal,gas and oil)- high dependency
Renewable- wind turbines,solar cells, wave power, tidal power, hydroelectric power, geothermal.
Result from the flow of energy from the sun/earths interior.
produce no co2, do not directly contribute to atmospheric pollution
Non-Renewable- coal, oil, gas, unconventional oil and coal e.g tar sands,heavy oil, oil shale, peat
Finite stock of resources- will run out
Emit CO2 during combustion- cause of global warming
Recyclable- Biomass, Biofuel, Nuclear power(with reprocessing of fuel)
Resouces have a renewable stock, can be repelenished with careful management
biomass and biofuels emit CO2, but reabsorb it when they are regrown- makes then colse to carbon neuteral
nuclear- do not emit Co2 but are environmental concerns regarding radioactive uranium fuel + disposal of nuclear waste.
UK- large supplies of coal, oil and gas, strong tides & winds- significant renewable energy potential.
low solar and geothermal potential.
volacanic activity- high geothermal sources
nuclear- uranium production- Canada & Australia leading-50%.
2025- 60% world oil supply from Middle East
Demand v Supply- Some countries have vast surplusses (Russia,Saudi Arabia) whereas some suffer from energy poverty.
Some areas have huge potential but are unable to exploit them e.g solar power in Africa
energy mix a country uses depends on a number of different factors
Physical- availability of North Sea natural gas contributed to surge of demand in 1990's.
Public perception- 1950-60's- nuclear power positive but after Chernobyl-1986-public turned against it.
Politics- nucelar power is back- fears over politics of gas supply from Russia
Technology- solar panel efficiency conversion increased from 5% to 40%-1970-2008- increases viability
Economics- wind power becoming competitive with fossil fuels-USA- Same price as coal and gas.
Environment- concerns about global warming have lead to move towards renewable resources-UK wind generating capacity increased.
Global energy demand expected to grow by 50% by 2030.
Growth-0.7% yr-developed, 2.5%+ -developing (India & China)- 2 Coal power stations a week- trying to meet demand.
will continue to rely on fossil fuels rather than switch to nuclear and renewables
nuclear power plants costly to build- long time to complete
solar power difficult to upscale
China & India-10%+ world coal reserves- coal power stations cheap & quick to build
will effect price of fossil fuels
major environmental implications
International energy pathways
low security- safe & secure transport by sea (oil,coal & LNG) or pipeline (gas & oil)
domestic renewable resources
foreign sources of fossil fuels
domestic sources of fossil fuels
IMPACTS OF ENERGY SECURITY
fossil fuel supplies becoming more concentrated
western europe- russian gas- given russia new political power
run through politically troubled areas.
pipelines cut off e.g 2006 Ukrane cut off over payment dispute- knock on effect
fears that Russia will be able to dictate cost of gas- UK supplies running out- peaked 2000
2030, 30% world oil pass through persian straits.- Iraq & Iran- conflict.
makes tankers & pipelines vunerable to attack and terrorism
large volumes passing through chokepoints-easily disrupted
COSTS OF DISRUPTION
price spikes- economic recessions
high oil prices- increase costs for industry- leads to inflation & rising prices
more money spent on energy & less on other goods- slows economic growth
energy fundamental in developed world- increases economic & political risks
reduction in sales of SUVs- 2007- USA- car companies lose profit.
2000-UK- protests- petrol stations blocked
governments getting energy policy wrong.
South Africa- energy blackouts- do not have enough generating capacity to meet demand.- lack of investment
knock on effects- industry cutting back production, FDI reduced, loss of economic growth, traffic chaos + closure of shops
takes long time to build new power stations
LOOKING FOR MORE ENERGY
technically difficult areas- arctic circle, deep water offshore, politically unstable (Somalia)
non-conventioinal fossil fuels- tar sands, oil shale, shale gas, heavy oil.
Environmental issues- oil spillages , destruction of forests for mining, use of fossil fuels to heat tar sands, damage to biodiverse environments, acid runoff from surface mining.
Arctic- 90 billion barrels of oil- 30% worlds undiscovered natural gas
territorial claims- fear of Arctic free for all- conflict.
dangers to environment- technologically advanced methods risky
PLAYERS IN THE ENERGY GAME
dominated by TNCs & state-owned oil companies
involved in exploration, extraction, refining & delivery.
TNCs verticaslly integrated into energy supply chain & many diversiying into renewables.
excessive profits- have monopoly of certain countries
not investing in long term- lead to supply shortages
damage to sensitive environments & ignoring locals
Consumers, National goveernments, Pressure groups, Local governments, OPEC, International organisations, TNCs, utility companies
OPECs- 12 major oil exporters- Africa and middle east.
can decrease oil supply & increase prices
control quotas for member states
2008- 35% supply globally- has 60% of reserves- become more powerful in future
ENERGY SECURITY AND THE FUTURE
DEMAND FOR FOSSIL FUELS
Economic growth- energy demand- demand strong between 2002-6- economic boom. when demand became higher than supply- cost rose.
Efficiency- lower demand- high energy prices encouraged switch to energy efficient technology.
Population growth- uncertain- pressures on energy supply
Renewable & recyclable resources- used more extensivley would reduce demand for fossil fuels
PEAK OIL PROBLEM
after peak supplies will shrink & prices rise.
timing disputed- between 2010-2030.- some say currently at oil plateu,
2007 price rises- possible sign of peak
gas less of a problem.- ghot oil shale gas, coal upto 200 yrs
timing of peak oil important- how urgently action is needed.
UK oil peak 1999, USA 1970- reliance on smaller no of nations.
unstable regions- middle east & africa
Buisness as usual- Use coal oil + gas.
upto 2020- scramble for remaining reserves, pressure on arctic
2020+ -high energy prices, increased use of non-conventional oil, widespread use of coal,
Issues- limited global warming progress,ecosystem destruction, air pollution, no need to develop new sources
New Atomic age- Nuclear power.
upto 2020- race to build reactors(costly), overcoming public perception
2020+ -developing world excluded- cost & technology, nuclear waste problems
Issues- uranium mining impacts, wasted disposal concerns, lower co2 emmisions, transport technology reelevoped (electric)
Renewable Renaissance- Wind, solar, wave, hydrogen, biomass
upto 2020- biomass-easy but rises food costs, wind power-oppsition
2020+ -stable supply, technology-solar viable, developing world benefits
Issues- major co2 reductions, large land ares used, requires hydrogen production for cars.
insecurity- countries use own energy resources
e.g USA- Bio-diesel & bioethanol- due to rising oil prices- created energy policy acts
created biofuel markets- farms growing fuel not food.- rising global food prices & riots in mexico
reliance on other countries- e.g China in Africa- bilateral agreements.-oil supply
concerns- bilateral agreements work against idea of open oil market, put oil interests ahead of humanitarian concerns (Sudan), undemocratic regimes (Zimbabwe), not helping african development
positives- brings money to worlds poorest continent infractructure development, employment.
needs- continuing secure supplies in developed world, meet emerging economies neess, basic needs for least developed world.
reduce urban air pollution, protect biodiversity, tackle global warming.
long term switch to renewables-
Refuse polluting energy sources- leave tar sands & oil shales-environmental costs of extraction & use of gas
Reduce overall consumption- Energy effieciency standards. tax system + carbon credits
Research more sustainable & affordable technologies- wind,solar,biomass, micro-hydro developed as low cost, postable systems for developing world
Recycle waste, convert to useful energy. landfill-methane used to generate electricity
Replace inefficient/wasteful technologies- Phase out non-energy saving light bulbs, replace petrol & diesel with hydrogen/electricity from renewable resources
large companies- TNCs/ state owned. exporation, exploitation, processing, delivery + renewables
governments- influence energy mix-promote remewable resources
pressure groups- influence energy policy, press for different resources or argue against construction e.g wind farms/ fracking
governments involved in energy using targets,quotas & subsidies.
some ay energy markets need to be more locally controlled
business as usual- dependence on fossil fuels- environmental & supply implications
sustainable energy future- switching to remewable sources + large scale nuclear power use.
radical- drastic cuts in personal energy use. local/ household renewable supplies, rapid decrease in fossil fuel use + high taxes on polluters
LINKS TO OTHER UNITS
world at risk- causes of global warming
technological fix- contrasting energy technologies, impacts and availability
superpower geogrpahies- increasing power of Russia & OPEC nations,
development gap- role of china in exploiting africa's oil
LINKS TO WIDER GLOBAL ISSUES
global warming- kyoto protocol- shift to renewable resources.
development gap- energy usage, NIC's heavy coal usage, developed countries- clean & renewable resources.
Show full summary
Hide full summary
Want to create your own
Globalisation Case Studies
The Weimar Republic, 1919-1929
Going Global: KEY WORDS
GCSE AQA Physics 1 Energy & Efficiency
Geography Coastal Zones Flashcards
Using GoConqr to study geography
All the Countries of the World and their Capital Cities
Tectonic Hazards flashcards
GCSE Geography - Causes of Climate Change