A2 Geography- Energy Security


(Geography) Mind Map on A2 Geography- Energy Security, created by sophielee0909 on 20/01/2014.
Mind Map by sophielee0909, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by sophielee0909 almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

A2 Geography- Energy Security
      1. 85% of energy supply from fossil fuels (coal,gas and oil)- high dependency
        1. Renewable- wind turbines,solar cells, wave power, tidal power, hydroelectric power, geothermal.
          1. Result from the flow of energy from the sun/earths interior.
            1. produce no co2, do not directly contribute to atmospheric pollution
          2. Non-Renewable- coal, oil, gas, unconventional oil and coal e.g tar sands,heavy oil, oil shale, peat
            1. Finite stock of resources- will run out
              1. Emit CO2 during combustion- cause of global warming
            2. Recyclable- Biomass, Biofuel, Nuclear power(with reprocessing of fuel)
              1. Resouces have a renewable stock, can be repelenished with careful management
                1. biomass and biofuels emit CO2, but reabsorb it when they are regrown- makes then colse to carbon neuteral
                  1. nuclear- do not emit Co2 but are environmental concerns regarding radioactive uranium fuel + disposal of nuclear waste.
            3. DISTRIBUTION
              1. physical geography-access
                1. UK- large supplies of coal, oil and gas, strong tides & winds- significant renewable energy potential.
                  1. low solar and geothermal potential.
                  2. volacanic activity- high geothermal sources
                    1. nuclear- uranium production- Canada & Australia leading-50%.
                      1. 2025- 60% world oil supply from Middle East
                        1. Demand v Supply- Some countries have vast surplusses (Russia,Saudi Arabia) whereas some suffer from energy poverty.
                          1. Some areas have huge potential but are unable to exploit them e.g solar power in Africa
                        2. ENERGY USE
                          1. energy mix a country uses depends on a number of different factors
                            1. Physical- availability of North Sea natural gas contributed to surge of demand in 1990's.
                              1. Public perception- 1950-60's- nuclear power positive but after Chernobyl-1986-public turned against it.
                                1. Politics- nucelar power is back- fears over politics of gas supply from Russia
                                  1. Technology- solar panel efficiency conversion increased from 5% to 40%-1970-2008- increases viability
                                    1. Economics- wind power becoming competitive with fossil fuels-USA- Same price as coal and gas.
                                      1. Environment- concerns about global warming have lead to move towards renewable resources-UK wind generating capacity increased.
                                    2. ENERGY TRENDS
                                      1. Global energy demand expected to grow by 50% by 2030.
                                        1. Growth-0.7% yr-developed, 2.5%+ -developing (India & China)- 2 Coal power stations a week- trying to meet demand.
                                          1. will continue to rely on fossil fuels rather than switch to nuclear and renewables
                                            1. nuclear power plants costly to build- long time to complete
                                              1. renewable sources-unreliable
                                                1. solar power difficult to upscale
                                                  1. China & India-10%+ world coal reserves- coal power stations cheap & quick to build
                                                2. will effect price of fossil fuels
                                                  1. major environmental implications
                                                3. ENERGY SECURITY
                                                  1. International energy pathways
                                                    1. low security- safe & secure transport by sea (oil,coal & LNG) or pipeline (gas & oil)
                                                    2. domestic renewable resources
                                                      1. foreign sources of fossil fuels
                                                        1. domestic sources of fossil fuels
                                                      2. IMPACTS OF ENERGY SECURITY
                                                        1. ENERGY PATHWAYS
                                                          1. fossil fuel supplies becoming more concentrated
                                                            1. western europe- russian gas- given russia new political power
                                                              1. run through politically troubled areas.
                                                                1. pipelines cut off e.g 2006 Ukrane cut off over payment dispute- knock on effect
                                                                  1. fears that Russia will be able to dictate cost of gas- UK supplies running out- peaked 2000
                                                                  2. 2030, 30% world oil pass through persian straits.- Iraq & Iran- conflict.
                                                                    1. makes tankers & pipelines vunerable to attack and terrorism
                                                                    2. large volumes passing through chokepoints-easily disrupted
                                                                      1. piracy-somalia
                                                                    3. COSTS OF DISRUPTION
                                                                      1. price spikes- economic recessions
                                                                        1. high oil prices- increase costs for industry- leads to inflation & rising prices
                                                                          1. more money spent on energy & less on other goods- slows economic growth
                                                                            1. energy fundamental in developed world- increases economic & political risks
                                                                              1. reduction in sales of SUVs- 2007- USA- car companies lose profit.
                                                                                1. 2000-UK- protests- petrol stations blocked
                                                                                2. governments getting energy policy wrong.
                                                                                  1. South Africa- energy blackouts- do not have enough generating capacity to meet demand.- lack of investment
                                                                                    1. knock on effects- industry cutting back production, FDI reduced, loss of economic growth, traffic chaos + closure of shops
                                                                                    2. takes long time to build new power stations
                                                                                3. LOOKING FOR MORE ENERGY
                                                                                  1. technically difficult areas- arctic circle, deep water offshore, politically unstable (Somalia)
                                                                                    1. non-conventioinal fossil fuels- tar sands, oil shale, shale gas, heavy oil.
                                                                                      1. Environmental issues- oil spillages , destruction of forests for mining, use of fossil fuels to heat tar sands, damage to biodiverse environments, acid runoff from surface mining.
                                                                                        1. Arctic- 90 billion barrels of oil- 30% worlds undiscovered natural gas
                                                                                          1. territorial claims- fear of Arctic free for all- conflict.
                                                                                            1. dangers to environment- technologically advanced methods risky
                                                                                          2. PLAYERS IN THE ENERGY GAME
                                                                                            1. dominated by TNCs & state-owned oil companies
                                                                                              1. involved in exploration, extraction, refining & delivery.
                                                                                                1. TNCs verticaslly integrated into energy supply chain & many diversiying into renewables.
                                                                                              2. TNC criticisms
                                                                                                1. excessive profits- have monopoly of certain countries
                                                                                                  1. not investing in long term- lead to supply shortages
                                                                                                    1. damage to sensitive environments & ignoring locals
                                                                                                    2. Consumers, National goveernments, Pressure groups, Local governments, OPEC, International organisations, TNCs, utility companies
                                                                                                      1. OPECs- 12 major oil exporters- Africa and middle east.
                                                                                                        1. can decrease oil supply & increase prices
                                                                                                          1. control quotas for member states
                                                                                                            1. 2008- 35% supply globally- has 60% of reserves- become more powerful in future
                                                                                                        2. ENERGY SECURITY AND THE FUTURE
                                                                                                          1. DEMAND FOR FOSSIL FUELS
                                                                                                            1. Economic growth- energy demand- demand strong between 2002-6- economic boom. when demand became higher than supply- cost rose.
                                                                                                              1. Efficiency- lower demand- high energy prices encouraged switch to energy efficient technology.
                                                                                                                1. Population growth- uncertain- pressures on energy supply
                                                                                                                  1. Renewable & recyclable resources- used more extensivley would reduce demand for fossil fuels
                                                                                                                  2. PEAK OIL PROBLEM
                                                                                                                    1. after peak supplies will shrink & prices rise.
                                                                                                                      1. timing disputed- between 2010-2030.- some say currently at oil plateu,
                                                                                                                        1. 2007 price rises- possible sign of peak
                                                                                                                          1. gas less of a problem.- ghot oil shale gas, coal upto 200 yrs
                                                                                                                          2. FUTURE
                                                                                                                            1. timing of peak oil important- how urgently action is needed.
                                                                                                                              1. UK oil peak 1999, USA 1970- reliance on smaller no of nations.
                                                                                                                                1. unstable regions- middle east & africa
                                                                                                                                2. scenarios
                                                                                                                                  1. Buisness as usual- Use coal oil + gas.
                                                                                                                                    1. upto 2020- scramble for remaining reserves, pressure on arctic
                                                                                                                                      1. 2020+ -high energy prices, increased use of non-conventional oil, widespread use of coal,
                                                                                                                                        1. Issues- limited global warming progress,ecosystem destruction, air pollution, no need to develop new sources
                                                                                                                                    2. New Atomic age- Nuclear power.
                                                                                                                                      1. upto 2020- race to build reactors(costly), overcoming public perception
                                                                                                                                        1. 2020+ -developing world excluded- cost & technology, nuclear waste problems
                                                                                                                                          1. Issues- uranium mining impacts, wasted disposal concerns, lower co2 emmisions, transport technology reelevoped (electric)
                                                                                                                                      2. Renewable Renaissance- Wind, solar, wave, hydrogen, biomass
                                                                                                                                        1. upto 2020- biomass-easy but rises food costs, wind power-oppsition
                                                                                                                                          1. 2020+ -stable supply, technology-solar viable, developing world benefits
                                                                                                                                            1. Issues- major co2 reductions, large land ares used, requires hydrogen production for cars.
                                                                                                                                    3. RISING TENSIONS
                                                                                                                                      1. insecurity- countries use own energy resources
                                                                                                                                        1. e.g USA- Bio-diesel & bioethanol- due to rising oil prices- created energy policy acts
                                                                                                                                          1. created biofuel markets- farms growing fuel not food.- rising global food prices & riots in mexico
                                                                                                                                        2. reliance on other countries- e.g China in Africa- bilateral agreements.-oil supply
                                                                                                                                          1. concerns- bilateral agreements work against idea of open oil market, put oil interests ahead of humanitarian concerns (Sudan), undemocratic regimes (Zimbabwe), not helping african development
                                                                                                                                            1. positives- brings money to worlds poorest continent infractructure development, employment.
                                                                                                                                        3. ALTERNATIVES
                                                                                                                                          1. needs- continuing secure supplies in developed world, meet emerging economies neess, basic needs for least developed world.
                                                                                                                                            1. reduce urban air pollution, protect biodiversity, tackle global warming.
                                                                                                                                            2. long term switch to renewables-
                                                                                                                                              1. Refuse polluting energy sources- leave tar sands & oil shales-environmental costs of extraction & use of gas
                                                                                                                                                1. Reduce overall consumption- Energy effieciency standards. tax system + carbon credits
                                                                                                                                                  1. Research more sustainable & affordable technologies- wind,solar,biomass, micro-hydro developed as low cost, postable systems for developing world
                                                                                                                                                    1. Recycle waste, convert to useful energy. landfill-methane used to generate electricity
                                                                                                                                                      1. Replace inefficient/wasteful technologies- Phase out non-energy saving light bulbs, replace petrol & diesel with hydrogen/electricity from renewable resources
                                                                                                                                                    2. SYNOPTIC LINKS
                                                                                                                                                      1. PLAYERS
                                                                                                                                                        1. large companies- TNCs/ state owned. exporation, exploitation, processing, delivery + renewables
                                                                                                                                                          1. governments- influence energy mix-promote remewable resources
                                                                                                                                                            1. pressure groups- influence energy policy, press for different resources or argue against construction e.g wind farms/ fracking
                                                                                                                                                            2. ACTIONS
                                                                                                                                                              1. governments involved in energy using targets,quotas & subsidies.
                                                                                                                                                                1. some ay energy markets need to be more locally controlled
                                                                                                                                                                2. FUTURES
                                                                                                                                                                  1. business as usual- dependence on fossil fuels- environmental & supply implications
                                                                                                                                                                    1. sustainable energy future- switching to remewable sources + large scale nuclear power use.
                                                                                                                                                                      1. radical- drastic cuts in personal energy use. local/ household renewable supplies, rapid decrease in fossil fuel use + high taxes on polluters
                                                                                                                                                                      2. LINKS TO OTHER UNITS
                                                                                                                                                                        1. world at risk- causes of global warming
                                                                                                                                                                          1. technological fix- contrasting energy technologies, impacts and availability
                                                                                                                                                                            1. superpower geogrpahies- increasing power of Russia & OPEC nations,
                                                                                                                                                                              1. development gap- role of china in exploiting africa's oil
                                                                                                                                                                              2. LINKS TO WIDER GLOBAL ISSUES
                                                                                                                                                                                1. global warming- kyoto protocol- shift to renewable resources.
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. development gap- energy usage, NIC's heavy coal usage, developed countries- clean & renewable resources.
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