1.2 - 1.3 Carbohydrates


This is my mind map: '1.2 - 1.3 Carbohydrates'. It is a mind map based on the AQA A-level Biology Specification, and is also based on the AQA Biology A-Level 2nd Edition Textbook that covers both of the 2 years of the AQA Biology A-level. Find my Carbohydrate Flashcards here: https://www.goconqr.com/en-GB/p/4793627
Bee Brittain
Mind Map by Bee Brittain, updated more than 1 year ago
Bee Brittain
Created by Bee Brittain almost 8 years ago

Resource summary

1.2 - 1.3 Carbohydrates
  1. Monomer
    1. Polymer
      1. Polysaccharide
      2. Monosaccharide
        1. Glucose
          1. Hexose Sugar - C6H12O6
            1. Isomers
              1. a-glucose
                1. b-glucose
              2. Galactose
                1. Fructose
              3. Test For Reducing Sugars
                1. Reduction - A chemical reaction involving the gain of electrons
                  1. Therefore a reducing sugar = donates electrons
                  2. BENEDICTS TEST
                    1. Alkaline solution of Copper (II) Sulphate
                      1. When HEATED with a reducing sugar, forms an insoluble RED precipitate
                    2. Disaccharides
                      1. Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
                        1. Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
                          1. Glucose + Galactose = Lactose
                            1. Made in a CONDENSATION REACTION
                              1. Molecule of water MADE
                                1. Glycosidic Bond
                                2. Broken down in a HYDROLYSIS REACTION into original monosaccharides
                                  1. Molecule of WATER ADDED
                                3. Test for Non-Reducing Sugars
                                  1. Must be in solution
                                    1. Add Benedict's regent and heat
                                      1. No colour change
                                        1. Reducing sugar not present
                                          1. Add food sample to dilute HCl + heat
                                            1. This will hydrolyse any disaccharide present into constituent monosaccharides
                                              1. Add sodium hydrogencarbonate solution to neutralise acid
                                                1. Benedicts doesn't work in acidic conditions
                                                  1. Test with pH paper
                                                    1. Re-test with Benedict's
                                                      1. Heat
                                                        1. If a non-reducing sugar present in original sample, Benedict's will turn orange/brown
                                                          1. This is due to reducing monosaccharide's made from non-reducing disaccharide
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