Chemical Reactions and Solutions

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Chemical Reactions and Solutions
Adelene Somerville
Mind Map by Adelene Somerville, updated more than 1 year ago
Adelene Somerville
Created by Adelene Somerville about 8 years ago
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Resource summary

Chemical Reactions and Solutions
  1. Solutions
    1. Homogeneous Mixture
      1. Solvent
        1. What dissolves the solute
        2. Solute
          1. What is dissolved
        3. Concentration
          1. measure of the amount of solute as related to the solution as a whole
            1. Molarity
              1. Concentration measured as moles of solute
                1. Molarity= (moles of solute)/(liters of solution)
                  1. Atomic number is used when converting grams to moles
                    1. Convert mL to Liters
                  2. Saturated
                    1. Solution at capacity
                  3. Solubility
                    1. Things That Affect Dissolving
                      1. Temperature
                        1. Affects speed of dissolution
                          1. Solids have higher solubility at higher temperatures
                            1. Gases have lower solubility at higher tempertures
                            2. Surface Area
                              1. Affects speed of dissolution
                                1. Amount of solute exposed to solvent
                                2. Pressure
                                  1. Higher pressure increases solubility of gases
                                  2. Stirring
                                    1. Affects the speed of dissolution
                                      1. Allows liquid particles to reach maximum capacity
                                        1. Moves saturated liquid
                                      2. Soluable
                                        1. 36g/100g
                                        2. Insoluable
                                          1. .00019g/100g
                                      3. Chemical Reactions
                                        1. Types of Chemical Reactions
                                          1. Single Replacement
                                            1. A + BX -> B + AX
                                              1. Element and Compound become different Element and Compound
                                              2. Double Replacement
                                                1. AX + BY -> AY + BX
                                                  1. Two compounds become two different compounds
                                                  2. Synthesis
                                                    1. A + B -> AB
                                                      1. Multiple reactants form one product
                                                      2. Decomposistion
                                                        1. Breaks down single reactant into multiple products
                                                          1. AB -> A + B
                                                          2. Combustion
                                                            1. Burning Reaction
                                                              1. Involves Oxygen
                                                                1. CxHyOz + O2 -> CO2 + H2O
                                                              2. Reaction that changes a substances identity
                                                                1. Chemical Equations
                                                                  1. Reactants
                                                                    1. Elements and Compounds before reaction
                                                                    2. Products
                                                                      1. Elements and Compounds after reaction
                                                                      2. Balancing Equations
                                                                        1. Coefficients
                                                                          1. Numbers used to indicate the units of a reactant or product needed to balance an equation
                                                                            1. 2H2O
                                                                            2. Avoids defying Law of Conservation of Mss
                                                                            3. Symbollically represents a chemical reaction
                                                                            4. Naming Chemicals
                                                                              1. Ionic Compounds
                                                                                1. Cation
                                                                                  1. If charge can be different values, then the cation's name is the metal's name followed by a roman numeral to show change
                                                                                    1. yttrium (lll)
                                                                                    2. If the charge is always a certain value, then the cation is the same as the metal
                                                                                      1. silver
                                                                                    3. Anion
                                                                                      1. Change the ending of the elements name to -ide
                                                                                        1. Oxide
                                                                                      2. Polyatomic Ions
                                                                                        1. Ions made up of multiple ions
                                                                                      3. Molecular Compounds
                                                                                        1. No charge
                                                                                          1. Nonmetals
                                                                                            1. Prefixes indicate number of atoms
                                                                                              1. Di = 2
                                                                                                1. Second element always has a prefix
                                                                                                  1. First element gets prefix if amount is greater than one
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