Language is a system of arbitrary signifiers.
Contrasting signs and signifiers make up the
system. The referent is the real thing and is
both the thought of a thing and the thing
itself; neither can exist without the other.
Because of this system of relationships, a
community must adhere to the same
understanding of language.
Teachers can elaborate on words
relationships to each other to help EL's build
Critical Period Hypothesis
There is a critical period between 2 and 5 for an
individual to acquire a second language: the
time before lateralization occurs.
There are advantages and disadvantages
to learning a second language younger
and learning it older.
A certain fluency in a first language must
be established before a student learns a
second language. The better developed a
student's first language is, the further
developed the second may become.
Teachers may use cognates as reference points
to help build EL's vocabulary.
Comprehensibe Input Hypothesis
A student must be able to understand the
linguistic input that he or she hears.
Challenge EL's with input that is slightly beyond
the student's level of competence
Three Aspects of ELP
1.) Basic Interpersonal Skills: High frequency vocab
and basic grammar that is usually acquired in 2 to
Emersion is highly beneficial
for students at this level.
2.) Discrete Language Skills: The development of rule
governed language comprehension. Typically learned in
Here is when comparing language systems based on
their similar grammar could help students learn
3.) Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency: The ability
to produce and interpret increasingly complex and low
The goal in the classroom is to have EL learners
achieve the same level of academic reading,
writing, and speaking as their non-EL peers.