Education has two functions: Social Solidarity - Education
transmits societies culture, school is society in miniature
Specialist Skills - as a result of structural differentiation the
economy demands specialist workers, education provides
Education acts as a bridge. Home is based on
particularistic values, whereas education treats
people with universalistic standards. School is
meritocratic. Education enables achieved status.
Schools are agencies of secondary socialisation.
Davis and Moore
Inequality is inevitable, people naturally have different
abilities. Education 'sifts and sorts' the most from the
least able. Most able and talented people get the 'most
Any other theory.
Traditional Marxists argue that
students are being taught
Chubb and Moe
Argue that the education should be privatised,
introducing marketisation. this is because they
argue that the competition between schools
will improve standards, as the idea is that a
paying customer can complain if things aren't
up to standard and changes will have to be
made, driving up efficiency and standards.
Gove (Conservative 2010 - present)
Removed coursework from many courses. No January
resists. No AS level and then A2. Introduced Free Schools.
Introduced Pupil Premium. Raising of tuition fees
(expected to rise again).
Not good for w/c pupils.
No coursework creates
a disadvantage for girls.
Ideological State Apparatus -
education system is used by
the government to reinforce
and legitimate capitalism and
Willis (Neo Marxist, New Criminology)
w/c boys labelled as trouble, form a
anti-school subculture, which values
mucking around, fulfilling predicted
label as then fail at school. Provides a
workforce for capitalism.
Bowles and Gintis
Correspondence Principle - school
mirrors the work environment (school
prepares individuals to accept work).
Hidden Curriculum - things that are learnt
bu are not directly taught, e.g. accepting
hierarchy, competition, working for
rewards, avoiding punishments.
Myth of Meritocracy - the
education is made to seem fair,
but isn't. Stops the disadvantage
from blaming/challenging the
system when failing, instead
Without the hidden curriculum
wouldn't be able to function
successfully in the workplace.