AS Sociology - Education Theories


The different theories arguments towards the role of education in society.
Mind Map by HannahLB, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by HannahLB almost 9 years ago

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AS Sociology - Education Theories
  1. Functionalism
    1. Durkheim
      1. Education has two functions: Social Solidarity - Education transmits societies culture, school is society in miniature Specialist Skills - as a result of structural differentiation the economy demands specialist workers, education provides these.
      2. Parsons
        1. Education acts as a bridge. Home is based on particularistic values, whereas education treats people with universalistic standards. School is meritocratic. Education enables achieved status. Schools are agencies of secondary socialisation.
        2. Davis and Moore
          1. Inequality is inevitable, people naturally have different abilities. Education 'sifts and sorts' the most from the least able. Most able and talented people get the 'most important jobs'.
          2. Secondary socialisation
            1. Criticisms
              1. Any other theory.
                1. Traditional Marxists argue that students are being taught capitalist values
              2. New Right
                1. Chubb and Moe
                  1. Argue that the education should be privatised, introducing marketisation. this is because they argue that the competition between schools will improve standards, as the idea is that a paying customer can complain if things aren't up to standard and changes will have to be made, driving up efficiency and standards.
                  2. Gove (Conservative 2010 - present)
                    1. Removed coursework from many courses. No January resists. No AS level and then A2. Introduced Free Schools. Introduced Pupil Premium. Raising of tuition fees (expected to rise again).
                    2. Criticisms
                      1. Have made education harder.
                        1. Not good for w/c pupils.
                          1. Supports capitalism.
                            1. No coursework creates a disadvantage for girls.
                          2. Marxist
                            1. Althusser
                              1. Ideological State Apparatus - education system is used by the government to reinforce and legitimate capitalism and class inequalities.
                              2. Willis (Neo Marxist, New Criminology)
                                1. Combines interpretivist ideas (labelling) with marxist (capitalism).
                                  1. w/c boys labelled as trouble, form a anti-school subculture, which values mucking around, fulfilling predicted label as then fail at school. Provides a workforce for capitalism.
                                  2. Bowles and Gintis
                                    1. Correspondence Principle - school mirrors the work environment (school prepares individuals to accept work).
                                      1. Hidden Curriculum - things that are learnt bu are not directly taught, e.g. accepting hierarchy, competition, working for rewards, avoiding punishments.
                                        1. Myth of Meritocracy - the education is made to seem fair, but isn't. Stops the disadvantage from blaming/challenging the system when failing, instead blame themselves.
                                        2. Criticisms
                                          1. Without the hidden curriculum wouldn't be able to function successfully in the workplace.
                                            1. Feminists argue, ignores gender.
                                          2. Feminist
                                            1. Liberal
                                              1. Things have got better, 'march of progress'
                                              2. Radical
                                              3. Interactionist
                                                1. Postmodernism
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