Mind Map on GCSE PE, created by natasha hainsworth on 24/04/2015.
natasha hainsworth
Mind Map by natasha hainsworth, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Created by matt_daniells about 9 years ago
Copied by n.marment about 9 years ago
natasha hainsworth
Copied by natasha hainsworth about 9 years ago

Resource summary

  1. Warmup and cooldown
    1. CV Warmup
      1. Stretching
        1. Specific skills practice
      2. Prevents injury
        1. Practice skills before the game
          1. Prepare psychologically
        2. Cool down flushes out lactic acid and helps to prevent stiffness and soreness in the muscles
        3. Tests
          1. HR tests
            1. Cooper's run - CV fitness and Muscular endurance
              1. Hand grip strength test - Muscular strength
                1. Sit and reach test - Flexibility
                  1. Harvard step test - CV fitness and Muscular Endurance
            2. SR tests
              1. Illinois agility run (agility)
                1. Standing stork test (balance)
                  1. Sergeant jump test (leg power)
                    1. Standing board jump (power)
                      1. Ruler drop test (reaction time)
                        1. 30-metre sprint (speed)
                          1. Three ball juggle (coordination)
            3. Principles of training
              1. Individual needs
                1. Progressive Overload
                2. Specificity
                  1. Rest and recovery
                    1. FITT
                3. Benefits of taking part in physical activity
                  1. Physical - Physical challenge, Increase performance, Contribute to good physical health, increase fitness, improve heath related factors
                    1. Social - Make new friends, Develop teamwork skills, Work with others
                      1. Relieve or prevent stress, Mental challenge (can I do it?), Increase self esteem and confidence, make individual feel good
                      2. skill related components
                        1. co-ordination-the ability to use two or more body parts at once
                          1. agility-ability to change direction of movement quickly
                            1. reaction time-the time taken to react to the stimulus
                              1. balance-the ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity) of the body
                                1. speed- the time taken to cover a distance
                                  1. power-the ability to undertake strength performances quickly
                                  2. Opportunities for getting involved
                                    1. Government initiatives, i.e. two hours of PE per week
                                      1. Active Kids Program
                                      2. PE School Sport and Club Links (PESSCL
                                        1. The Youth Sport trust (sports leaders)
                                        2. Top link trust- keep people aged 14-16 involved in sport
                                        3. Nutrients
                                          1. Carbohydrates - provide energy
                                            1. Fats - Provide energy with glycogen and help muscles work
                                              1. Proteins - Help build muscle and repair damaged tissue
                                                1. Minerals - Essential for a healthy body
                                                  1. Vitamins - Essential for healthy bones, vision, skin etc.
                                                    1. Adds bulk to food and aids digestive system
                                                    2. Factors affecting optimum weight
                                                      1. Height
                                                        1. Gender
                                                          1. Bone Structure
                                                            1. Muscle girth
                                                      2. Maximum heart rate = 220 - Age
                                                        1. Target heart rate or target zone: the range within which an individual needs to work aerobic training to take place (60-80% of maximum heart rate)
                                                        2. Drugs
                                                          1. Anabolic steroids (allow you to train harder and recover quicker, risk of heart attack and strokes, infertility in women
                                                            1. Beta blockers (lower heart rate-steadiness), risk of nausea, tiredness and depression
                                                              1. Diuretics (increase urine-mask other drugs), risk of dehydration, and kidney problems long-term
                                                            2. Narcotic analgesics (reduce pain), loss of concentration, sometimes hallucinations
                                                              1. Stimulants (increase physcial alertness), High blood pressure, addiction, insomnia
                                                                1. Peptide hormones(produce other hormones), Increased risk of heart attack
                                                              2. Alcohol, affects coordination, damages liver, kidneys etc, slows reaction
                                                                1. Tobacco, Short of breath, increases risk of heart disease
                                                              3. Risk prevention
                                                                1. Warming up/cooling down
                                                                  1. Checking equipment and facilities
                                                                    1. Protective equipment and clothing
                                                                      1. Balanced Competition
                                                                        1. Playing to the rules of competition
                                                                          1. Physical readiness
                                                                2. Cardiovascular system
                                                                  1. Immediate effects:increased heart rate, sweating,increased body temperature,increased blood presssure
                                                                    1. long term effects: increased cardiac output, lower resting heart rate,increased number of capillaries, heart muscles increase in size, quicker recovery, increased stroke volume
                                                                      1. consists of heart, blood vessels and the blood
                                                                        1. functions: supply oxygen and nutrients and to remove carbon dioxide
                                                                          1. lifestyle effects: high cholesterol from fats
                                                                          2. Respiratory system
                                                                            1. tidal volume is the amount of air inspired and expired with each normal breath at rest or during exercise
                                                                              1. vital capacity-is the greatest amount of air that can be made to pass into and out of the lungs .
                                                                                1. immediate effects: breatging rate increase, oxygen debt
                                                                                  1. long term effects:increased efficency, increased vital capacity, increase amount of alveoli, carbon dioxide removed more efficiently
                                                                                    1. smoking causes the alveoli to become less stretchy and less eficient this is why smokers find it hard to breathe
                                                                                    2. Muscular system
                                                                                      1. immediate effects:lactic acid build up, cramp,increaase demand for oxygen
                                                                                        1. how the muscles work?
                                                                                          1. isontonic contraction-muscle contraction which results in movement
                                                                                            1. isometric contraction-muscle contraction which results in increased tension however the length does not alter
                                                                                            2. long term effects: increased muscle size (hypertrophy), increased muscular strength, better posture, increased bone strength, increased power
                                                                                              1. potential injuries: soft tissue
                                                                                              2. Skeletal system
                                                                                                1. functions: 1. support 2. movement 3.protection
                                                                                                  1. joints: hinge joint, ball and socket joint and pivot joint
                                                                                                    1. movement: flexion, extention, adduction, abduction and rotation
                                                                                                    2. effects of exercise: increase bone density, increased ligament and tendon strength, increased flexibility
                                                                                                      1. impotance of weight bearing exercises: to reduce the risk of getting osteoporosis
                                                                                                        1. injuries: broken bone, fracture, dislocation and sprain
                                                                                                        2. Reasons for taking part
                                                                                                          1. physical challenge
                                                                                                            1. taking part in the London Marathon
                                                                                                            2. asthetic appreciation
                                                                                                              1. the beauty of the movement and how well its performed e.g gymnastics
                                                                                                              2. co-operation
                                                                                                                1. improving teamwork, e.g netball or rugby
                                                                                                                2. the frienships and social mixing
                                                                                                                  1. develop motivation to participate
                                                                                                                  2. competition
                                                                                                                    1. relieve stress by taking mind off other things like exams
                                                                                                                  3. influences on taking part
                                                                                                                    1. people
                                                                                                                      1. family and peers
                                                                                                                      2. image
                                                                                                                        1. having the right equipment which is fashionable eg. nike trainers
                                                                                                                        2. cultural factors
                                                                                                                          1. disabilities may cause people to not be able to partiucipate in sports however opportunities are increasing another cultural factor is age and gender
                                                                                                                          2. resources
                                                                                                                            1. availability of facilities and resources or the location of facilities
                                                                                                                            2. health and wellbeing
                                                                                                                              1. illness may cause people not to be able to participate
                                                                                                                              2. socio-economic
                                                                                                                                1. cost can effect people choices as if they cannot afford it their socio-economic status has influenced their involvement
                                                                                                                              3. health related components
                                                                                                                                1. cardiovascular fitness-the ability to exercise the entire body for a long period of time
                                                                                                                                  1. muscular endurance-the ability to use the voluntary muscles without getting tired
                                                                                                                                    1. muscular strength- the amount of force able to exert against a resistance
                                                                                                                                      1. body composition- the percentage of body weight thats body fat, bone and muscle
                                                                                                                                        1. flexibility-the range of movement possible at a joint
                                                                                                                                        2. weight related conditons
                                                                                                                                          1. obese-a term used to descirbe people who are very overdat
                                                                                                                                            1. overfat- having body fat in excess of normal
                                                                                                                                              1. anorexic-a loss of appetite which causes weight loss
                                                                                                                                                1. overweight- having weight in excess of normal but not harmful
                                                                                                                                                  1. underweight-is weighing less than normal
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