GCSE AQA Biology 2 Cells & Diffusion

Description

Mind map showing information about the structure of cells, specialised cells, cell organisation and diffusion
Lilac Potato
Mind Map by Lilac Potato, updated more than 1 year ago
Lilac Potato
Created by Lilac Potato almost 9 years ago
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Resource summary

GCSE AQA Biology 2 Cells & Diffusion
  1. Animal & plant cells
    1. Animal cells have...
      1. Nucleus

        Annotations:

        • Contains genetic material that conrols activities of cell
        1. Cytoplasm

          Annotations:

          • Gel-like substance where most chemical reactions happen - contains enzymes
          1. Cell membrane

            Annotations:

            • Hold cell together & controls what goes in/out
            1. Mitochondria

              Annotations:

              • Where reactions for respiration take place - releases energy
              1. Ribosomes

                Annotations:

                • Where proteins are made - protein synthesis
              2. Plant cells have the same plus...
                1. Cell wall

                  Annotations:

                  • Rigid, made of cellulose - supports & strengthens cell
                  1. Permanent vacuole

                    Annotations:

                    • Contains cell sap - weak solution of sugars & salts
                    1. Chloroplasts

                      Annotations:

                      • Where photosynthesis happens (makes food for the plant) - contain green substance (chlorophyll)
                  2. Diffusion
                    1. Definition

                      Annotations:

                      • The spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentartion
                      1. Happens in both solutions & gases
                        1. The bigger the difference in concentration, the faster the diffusion rate
                          1. Cell membranes
                            1. Allow small molecules through (e.g. oxygen, glucose, amino acids, & water)
                              1. Don't allow big molecules through (e.g. starch & proteins)
                                1. Particles move randomly but net movement from high to low concentration
                              2. Specialised cells
                                1. Palisade leaf cells
                                  1. Packed with chloroplasts - for photosynthesis
                                    1. Tall shape - large surface area exposed down side for absorbing carbon dioxide
                                      1. Thin shape - can pack lots at top of leaf
                                      2. Guard cells
                                        1. Open & close stomata in leaf
                                          1. When plant has lots of water...

                                            Annotations:

                                            • Guards cells fill with water & become turgid, making stomata open - gases can be exchanged for photosynthesis
                                            1. When plant is short of water...

                                              Annotations:

                                              • Guard cells lose water & become flaccid, making stomata close - stops too much water vapour escaping
                                              1. Thin outer walls & thick inner walls
                                                1. Sensitive to light & close at night

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • To save water - adapted to function of allowing gas exchange & controlling water loss within leaf
                                                2. Red blood cells
                                                  1. Concave shape

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • Big SA for absorbing oxygen & helps them move smoothly through capillaries
                                                    1. Packed with haemoglobin

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • Pigment that absorbs oxygen
                                                      1. No nucleus

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • More room for haemoglobin
                                                      2. Sperm & egg cells
                                                        1. Sperm cells
                                                          1. Long tail & streamlined head

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • Help it swim to egg
                                                            1. Lots of mitochondria

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • Energy needed to swim
                                                              1. Carry enzymes

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • In head - to digest egg cell membrane
                                                              2. Egg cells
                                                                1. Huge food reserves

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • To feed embryo
                                                                  1. Membrane can change structure

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • To stop more sperm getting in - offspring ends up with right amount of DNA
                                                              3. Cell organisation
                                                                1. Cell differentiation

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • Process by which cells become specialised for a particular job
                                                                  1. Occurs during development
                                                                  2. Tissue - group of similar cells

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • That work together to carry out a particular function
                                                                    1. Examples of tissues
                                                                      1. Muscular tissue - contracts to move
                                                                        1. Glandular tissue - makes & secretes chemicals e.g. enzymes & hormones
                                                                          1. Epithelial tissue - covers parts of the body
                                                                        2. Organ - group of different tissues

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • That work together to perform a certain function
                                                                          1. e.g. Stomach is made of...
                                                                            1. Muscular tissue - moves stomach wall to churn food
                                                                              1. Glandular tissue - makes digestive juices to digest food
                                                                                1. Epithelial tissue - covers outside and inside of stomach
                                                                              2. Organ system - group of organs

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • Working together to perform a particular function
                                                                                1. e.g. Digestive system is made of these organs...
                                                                                  1. Glands

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • Produce digestive juices
                                                                                    1. Stomach & small intestine

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • Digest food
                                                                                      1. Liver

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        • Produces bile
                                                                                        1. Small intestine

                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                          • Absorbs soluble food molecules
                                                                                          1. Large intestine

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            • Absorbs water from undigested food - leaving faeces
                                                                                      2. Single-celled microorganisms
                                                                                        1. Bacterial cells
                                                                                          1. Has cytoplasm, cell membrane & wall
                                                                                            1. No nucleus - strands of genetic material instead
                                                                                            2. Have flagella

                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                              • Long protein strands - to move about
                                                                                            3. Yeast cells
                                                                                              1. Have a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane & wall
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