Cell Biology IB SL Biology


A-Level Biology Mind Map on Cell Biology IB SL Biology, created by Elisabeth Morell on 03/02/2015.
Elisabeth Morell
Mind Map by Elisabeth Morell, updated more than 1 year ago
Elisabeth Morell
Created by Elisabeth Morell about 9 years ago

Resource summary

Cell Biology IB SL Biology
  1. 2. Cells
    1. 3. Common features:
      1. Surrounded by a membrane
        1. Contain genetic material
          1. Cell activity is catalyzed by enzymes produced in the cell
            1. The chemical reactions are known as metabolism
            2. Have their own energy release systems
            3. 3. Cell Theory
              1. Living organisms are composed by cells
              2. 3. Unicellular Organisms
                1. Prokarytes
                  1. Cell structure
                    1. Has
                      1. DNA
                        1. In the cytoplasm in the nucleoid
                          1. No proteins
                        2. Cytoplasm
                          1. Holds the DNA
                          2. Cell Wall
                            1. Archaeans don't have cell walls
                              1. Cell wall is outside the cell membrane. Contains peptidoglycan. Extracellular.
                            2. Ribosomes
                              1. In the cytoplasm, makes proteins
                              2. Plasma membrane
                                1. Provides barrier and support for the cell
                                  1. Photosynthesis can occur in the plasma membrane
                                    1. Cellular respiration occurs in the plasma membrane
                                      1. Is a form of metabolism called fermentation
                                2. Cell division
                                  1. Divides by binary fission
                                    1. Asexual reproduction
                                3. Eukaryotes
                                  1. Cell structure
                                    1. Nucleus
                                      1. Nuclear membrane
                                        1. Cytoplasm
                                          1. Ribosomes
                                            1. Smooth E. R.
                                              1. Golgi apparatus
                                                1. Rough E. R.
                                                  1. Micro tubules
                                                    1. Lysosomes
                                                      1. Pila
                                                    2. bacteria, archaea, protozoa, unicellular algae and unicellular fungi.
                                                      1. All the functions of life are carried out in that one cell
                                                        1. 7 functions of life: Nutrition, metabolism, growth, adaptation, excretion, homeostasis, reproduction
                                                      2. 3. Multicellular organisms
                                                        1. animals, land plants and filamentous fungi are multicellular, as are many algae
                                                          1. The first evidence of multicellularity is from cyanobacteria-like organisms that lived 3-3.5 billion years ago
                                                            1. Cell differentiation
                                                              1. occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as the organism changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types.
                                                                1. Gene Expression
                                                                  1. All multicellular organisms in humans have the same set of genes
                                                                    1. Cell differentiation happens because a different sequence of gene is expressed in different cell types
                                                                    2. Specialization
                                                                      1. Specialized tissues can develop by cell differentiation e.g. Red blood cell carries oxygen
                                                                        1. Tissues are a group of specialized cells that perform the same function
                                                                    3. Undifferentiated cell
                                                                      1. Stem cells
                                                                        1. Have the capacity to differentiate(produce different cell types), this is necessary for embryonic development
                                                                          1. Embryonic stem cells can be used to produce regenerated tissue for people with skin burns and other therapeutic uses
                                                                            1. Non-therapeutic: Use large amounts of muscle fibers for human consumption in animals
                                                                            2. can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells
                                                                        2. 3. Microscopes
                                                                          1. Electron
                                                                            1. Resolution is 1 nanometer
                                                                              1. Reveals the ultrastructure of cells
                                                                            2. Light
                                                                              1. Maximum resolution is 200 nanometers
                                                                                1. Reveals the cells structure
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