Treatments for Depression


A-Levels PY4 (Abnormal Psychology) Mind Map on Treatments for Depression, created by Hayd23 on 15/06/2013.
Mind Map by Hayd23, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Hayd23 almost 11 years ago

Resource summary

Treatments for Depression
  1. Electroconvulsive Therapy
    1. How does ECT work?
      1. increase the rates of serotonin
        1. stimulates / generates improvements in depressive symptoms
          1. improves blood flow in the brain
            1. restores the brain's ability to regulate mood by enhancing the transmission of neurotransmitters
            2. Side effects
              1. memory loss
                1. cardiovascular changes
                  1. headaches
                  2. Effectiveness of ECT for depression
                    1. Sackheim (1989) - real ECT is significantly more effective than placebo ECT
                      1. however bilateral was more effective than unilateral
                      2. Sackheim - ECT is more effective than anti-depressant drugs
                        1. however, the use of medication following ECT can prevent relapse
                        2. ECT is more effective in the short term treatment of depression
                          1. however, lacks reliability as the trials haven't been compared with newer anti-depressants
                        3. doesn't cure the potential cause, only the symptoms
                        4. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
                          1. aim - train clients to distance themselves from things; distinguish fact from fiction; see things in proportion; not to see things in such extreme terms
                            1. Thought catching
                              1. individuals are taught how to see the link between their thoughts and the way they feel
                                1. they might be asked to record any emotion-arousing events, the automatic 'negative' thoughts associated with these events and then their 'realistic' thoughts that might challenge these negative thoughts
                                  1. by challenging the dysfunctional thoughts and replacing them with more constructive ones, clients are encouraged to try out new ways of thinking, and in turn, behaving
                                  2. Behavioural activation
                                    1. based on the common-sense idea that being active leads to rewards that act as an antidote to depression
                                      1. the characteristic of many depressed people is that they no longer participate in activities that they previously enjoyed
                                        1. in CBT, therapist and client identify potentially pleasurable activities and anticipate then deal with any cognitive obstacles ( "I won't be able to do that" )
                                        2. Butler (2006) - CBT was highly effective for treating depression
                                          1. however, Holmes (2002) - the single greatest study into effective treatment for depression showed that CBT was less effective that medication
                                          2. CBT takes full account of the patient's thoughts, attitudes and feelings
                                            1. however, it focuses more of treating symptoms rather than getting to the cause of problems
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