Genes vs. Environment


A-Levels PY4 (Controversies) Mind Map on Genes vs. Environment, created by Hayd23 on 06/06/2013.
Mind Map by Hayd23, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Hayd23 over 10 years ago

Resource summary

Genes vs. Environment
  1. Genetic Influence
    1. Intelligence
      1. twin and adoption studies suggest that a large component of the variation in IQ is due to genetic factors
        1. however, there's equally strong evidence for the effects of nurture
          1. Flynn effect; the observation that IQs all over the world have increased by 20 points in 30 years
            1. must be due to environmental enrichment
        2. Mental illness
          1. twin and adoption studies show that the closer 2 individuals are genetically, the more likely that both of them will develop the same mental disorder
            1. EG. concordance rate for schizophrenia is 40% for MZ and 7% for DZ
            2. however, clearly a significant environmental component
              1. diathesis-stress model; individuals who have a genetic vulnerability (diathesis) for a disorder only develop is under certain conditions (stress)
            3. Evolutionary explanations
              1. natural selection; behaviour that leads to increased survival/reproduction will be selected and passed on via genes to subsequent generations
                1. however genetic behaviours are modified by culture
                  1. Buss found 22% of females did NOT value ambition an industriousness more than males (cultural relativism)
              2. Environmental Influences
                1. Aggression
                  1. Bandura's view was that aggressive behaviour is mainly learned through observation and vicarious reinforcement
                    1. the key concepts of social learning theory (SLT)
                    2. Bandura suggested that this enables us to learn the specifics of aggressive behaviour
                      1. however, a person's biological make-up creates a potential for aggression and it is the actual expression of aggression that is learned
                        1. Coccaro (1997) studied twin pairs and found that nearly 50% of the variance in aggressive behaviour could be attributed to genetic factors
                      2. Neural plasticity
                        1. the ability of the brain, both in development and adulthood to be changed by the environment
                          1. Pascual-Leone (1995) - the region of the brain that controls finer movement increased in size in PP's required to play a piano finger exercise daily over 5 days
                            1. Edwards and Cline (1999) - studies with non-human animals have observed the way neurons shrink and grow in response to changing environmental conditions
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