Push and Pull factors for urbanisation and counter-urbanisation
A flow chart outline most of the factors ascociated with the motives of urbanisation or counter urbanisation. Extension: once you have read and understood this, separate the factors into LEDC and MEDC categories. i.e. overcrowding is not a problem in our rural civilisations but is in African rural civilisations for example.
Lack of jobsLack of services; close hospitals, schools, transportFew leisure facilitiesFew schoolsSubsistence farmingFewer schools
Poverty Poor sewage disposalLack of clean waterPoor education and health provisionsLack of shelter
Permanent jobsDirect electric and water supplyBetter educationMore jobsBetter access to healthcareQuick services; emergency Better housingWider variation of foodLots of leisureTechnological advances
Starting a family; more space, larger property for the money, fresh airRetirement; quietness, more space, fresh air