module 5 pharmacology chapter 18

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2 pharmacology Flashcards on module 5 pharmacology chapter 18, created by Alannah Mendoza on 22/05/2014.
Alannah Mendoza
Flashcards by Alannah Mendoza, updated more than 1 year ago
Alannah Mendoza
Created by Alannah Mendoza almost 10 years ago
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-do not posses ducts or any openings to the exterior but rather secrete externally endocrine glands
-endocrine glands secretions -are chemical substances that pass into the bloodstream and are carried to the various tissues of the body, on which they exert their action- altering the function or activity of that target organ hormones
The endocrine glands, mammary glands, and growth of the body's skeletal system are under the control of the ______ ______ of the ____ ____, sometimes called the "master gland" anterior lobe pituitary gland
- a small gland located at the base of the brain, secretes regulating hormones that control the action of other endocrine glands of the body anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
-regulating hormones tropic hormones
-is composed of 2 lobes located on either side of the larynx thyroid gland
-also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone -from the anterior pituitary stimulates the thyroid gland to secret the thyroid hormones thyrotropic hormone
-thyroid hormones -affect the metabolism, growth, and development of the body thyroxine/ triiodothyronine
-refers to reduced activity of the thyroid gland hypothyroidism
-develops whenever the thyroid gland fails to function properly during the formative years of a child's developement cretinism
-severe and prolonged hypothyroidism in an adult -characterized by a gradual slowing of mental and physical functions myxedema
- overactivity of the thyroid, is characterized by an enlargement of the thyroid gland, protruding eyes, elevation of the basal metabolic rate, disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism, nervousness, and hyperactivity hyperthyroidism
-also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is caused by an autoimmune process -the serum of these patients contains antibodies to one or more of the thyroid antigens, and it is presumed that the destruction of the thyroid is caused by the antigen-antibody process hashimoto's disease
- is the term applied to an enlarged thyroid gland -increase in size may be caused by hyperthyroidism, or it may be caused by hypothyroidism, the growth resulting from a body "reflex" to compensate for the inefficiency of the gland goiter
-drugs are either natural or synthetic preparations containing hormones that are naturally produced in the thyroid gland thyroid
-products permit a greater accuracy and predictability when treating thyroid dysfunction synthetic
-is cleaned and dried thyroid gland, obtained primarily from hogs -may be used in varied dosages as necessary to attain thyroid function in the normal range -partial hypothyroidism requires small doses thyroid
-antithyroid agents -inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormones by preventing the incorporation of iodine into the hormone -used for palliative treatment of hyperthyroidism and preoperatively before surgical and radiation procedures methimazole
-antithyroid agents -interferes with the incorporation of iodine into the thyroid hormone molecule -used both for suppression of the thyroid gland before surgical procedures and for medical suppression propylthiouracil
- 4 -usually located at the poles of the thyroid gland -are responsible for bone metabolism and for the regulation of calcium between the blood and bone parathyroid glands
-increased activity in the parathyroid gland -causes too much calcium to move away from the bones, giving a moth-eaten appearance to the bones on the x-ray hyperparathyroidism
-is a biosynthetic peptide fragment of human parathyroid hormone -used to treat osteoporosis in men and women -should be used in caution who have renal calculi -orthostatic hypotension reported teriparatide
-located directly above the kidneys and are composed of 2 parts: the cortex and medulla adrenal glands
parathyroid glands: -the medullary portion secretes ________ and __________ epinephrine / norepinephrine
some hormones secreted by the _______ _______ are cortisone, hydrocortisone, aldosterone, and deoxycorticosterone. adrenal cortex
- the most important functions of these hormones in the body are regulation of water and salt mechanism, regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, and production of anti-inflammatory effects hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex
-is a destructive disease of the adrenal cortex in humans -may be treated by administering deoxycorticosterone along with a diet high in sodium and low in potassium Addison's disease
- are potent anti-inflammatory drugs -when irritation or inflammation is present anywhere in the body, there is an increase in the production of these hormones by the adrenal cortex -useful in the suppression of the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, bursitis , and various types of skin diseases cortisone and hydrocortisone
-adrenocorticoid agent -used for the management of mild to moderate Crohn's disease -has topical anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects budesonide (entocort)
clusters of cells known as the islets of Langerhans are found on the pancreas and are the sources of the hormone know as _________ insulin
-serves 3 purposes: it aids in the use of glucose energy, it stores excess glucose as glycogen in the liver, and it is responsible for the conversion of glucose to fat insulin
dose of insulin is determined by 4 factors: -the weight of the patient -the metabolic rate -physical activity -any residual function of the pancreas
-this biosynthetic insulin can be prepared in various forms to lower blood glucose rapidly or over a long period of time -is structurally identical to the insulin produced by the human body human insulin
-this product consists of zinc-insulin crystals that are dissolved in a clear fluid -takes effect rapidly and generally lasts 4-6 hrs -given subcut and IV -is the only insulin that may be given IV -100 units human insulin injection regular Humulin R, Novolin R
-also known as isophane insulin, or NPH, this is an intermediate-acting insulin containing a suspension of zinc-insulin crystals and protamine sulfate -onset action is within 1 1/2 hrs, peak activity is 4-12 hrs, and the duration is 24hrs -given subcut only -100 units human insulin injection isophane Humulin N, Novolin N
-this intermediate-acting product is a mixture of crystalline and amorphous insulin in a ratio of 7:3 -onset of action is within 2 1/2 hrs, peak 7-15hrs, duration 24hrs -given only subcut lente human insulin zinc injection Humulin L, Novolin L
-this long-acting insulin is a crystalline suspension of human insulin with zinc that provides a slower onset of action and longer duration -onset-4-8hrs, peak- 12-18 hrs, duration 28hrs -subcut only ultralente human insulin injection Humulin U
-this biosynthetic agent is a long-acting human insulin analog -administered once daily at the same time of day using a regular insulin syringe or the Optipen -onset- 4hrs, peak -steady, duration- 24hrs insulin glargine Lantus
-this analog of human insulin has undergone a slight change from the human insulin molecule -slightly more rapid onset of action when given subcut or IV -is interchangeable with regular insulin -onset- 30min-1 hr, peak-2-3hrs, duration 4-8 hrs insulin lispro Humalog
-this product is a combination of 50% regular and 50% isophane insulin Humulin 50/50
-these products have combinations of 70% isophane and 30% regular insulin Humulin 70/30 and Novolin 70/30
-continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, is designed to stimulate normal pancreatic beta-cell function and deliver both basal and bolus insulin doses in patients with type 1 diabetes -adverse effect hypoglycemia, hypoglycemic unawareness insulin pump therapy
-oral hypoglycemic agent -inhibits the enzymes known as the alpha-glucosidase enzymes, that break-down complex carbohydrates into glucose and other monosaccharides -results in delayed carbohydrate break-down, delayed glucose absorption, and a resultant in postprandial hyperglycemia acarbose precose
-potent oral hypoglycemic, is not a routine insulin substitute -acts on the pancreatic cells to cause them to release residual insulin -use of this agent is uncomplicated diabetes of the stable, mild , or moderately severe maturity -onset or adult type(type 2) chlorpropamide diabinese
-oral hypoglycemic agent -is ineffective in the absence of some endogenous insulin -believed to improve sensitivity to insulin at the receptor sites metformin hydrochloride Glucophage
-the gonadotropic hormones from the anterior pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone FSH luteinizing hormone LH
- a hormone that prepares the uterus for the reception of the ovum -responsible for the uterine changes characteristic of the first half of the menstrual cycle; the development of the placenta; the maturation of the mammary glands during pregnancy; the multiplication of the uterine muscle fibers;and inhibition of uterine contraction progesterone
- is a generic term referring to natural and synthetic agents that exert the biologic effect of estradiol estrogen
- is used to treat conditions such as sexual infantilism and senile vaginitis and in perimenopausal women to provide smooth transition during perimenopause estrogen
- oral, transdermal, or topical -is used for the management of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause and for vaginal atrophy estradiol
-replacement therapy has been used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and urogenital dryness and the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis -studies have shown increase in breast cancer, stroke, and cardiovascular complications with the use of replacement therapy estrogen
-is an estrogen agonist-antagonist -used as an alternative to cyclic estrogen/ progesterone treatment in postmenopausal women -believed that this agent has a lower incidence of breast cancer as a side effect than the cyclic estrogen replacement raloxifene hydrochloride evista
-or natural hormone therapy -refers to the use of hormones that are identical to endogenous hormones in the body bioidentical hormone replacement therapy
-are agents that prevent pregnancy by virtue of their estrogen content -estrogens act to prevent ovulation by suppressing the release of FSH from the anterior pituitary gland -side effects- breast changes, loss of scalp hair, dermatoses, headache, nervousness, thromboembolic disorders, and emotional instability -become less effective in preventing ovulation when the patient is taking antibiotics oral contraceptives
-levonorgestrel plus ethinyl estardiol (Seasonale) -levonorgestrel plus ethinyl estrdiol ( Triphasil) oral contraceptives
-immediate use of an _______ ______ agent reduces a woman's risk of pregnancy to 1% - 2% -should be taken within 72 hrs o unprotected intercourse emergency contraception
-is a synthetic, nonsteroidal compound that may be administered orally to promote ovulation in women have been anovulatory -act by promoting the release of pituitary gonadotropins, which promote ovulation -side effects- blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, breast engorgement, headache, dizziness, and skin reactions clomiphene citrate Clomid
-uterine stimulants oxytocic agents
-stimulates the uterine muscles and produces rhythmic contractions -overdose may produce uterine tetany oxytocin injection
-male hormone -is responsible for normal development of the male reproductive tract and maintains the secondary sex characteristics -may be used therapeutically when a deficiency of the hormone is known, in females to treat certain ovarian dysfunction, and in females to treat breast engorgement and supress lactation testosterone
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