module 5 pharmacology chapter 9


2 pharmacology Flashcards on module 5 pharmacology chapter 9, created by Alannah Mendoza on 25/05/2014.
Alannah Mendoza
Flashcards by Alannah Mendoza, updated more than 1 year ago
Alannah Mendoza
Created by Alannah Mendoza almost 10 years ago

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Question Answer
-are applied to irritated and abraded areas to protect them and alleviate itching soothing substances
-are fatty or oily substances applied to soothe the skin or mucus membranes -irritants, air, and airborne bacteria are excluded by the oily air, and the skin is rendered softer and more pliable by penetration of the ______ into the surface layers emollients
-are used chiefly as vehicles for fat-soluble drugs and as protective agents -Petrolatum/ Rosewater ointment/ Hydrous wool fat emollients
-are protective agents used primarily to alleviate irritation, particularly of mucous membranes and abraded tissue -generally applied to the surface in sticky preparations that rapidly cover the area demulcents
-may be incorporated in lozenges to soothe oral and throat mucosae and are swallowed in liquid form as an antidote for corrosive poisons -Gums and mucilages/ starch/ cream, milk/ egg white demulcents
-precipitate protein but ordinarily do not penetrate beyond cell surfaces, so the cell remains viable -this action is accompanied by contraction and blanching of skin, mucus and other secretions may be reduced so that the affected area becomes richer astringents
-these agents are used to arrest minor hemorrhage, check perspiration, reduce inflammation, promote healing, and toughen skin -salts of aluminum, zinc, and other heavy metals -tannins -alcohols,phenols astringents
-produce irritation, the degree of which is determined by the concentration and duration of action irritants
irritants -used to irritate unbroken skin to relieve deep pain in muscle, joints, bursae, and other areas counterirritants
irritants -produce local vasodilation, redness, and a feeling of warmth rubfacients
irritants -cause a strong irritation; blisters may be produced if used in high concentration or for a prolonged time vesicants
-camphor, menthol, chloroform -mustard, as in mustard plaster -oil of wintergreen irritants
- cause sloughing of hardened epithelium -are used to cauterize ulcers and to destroy excess tissue such as calluses and warts -Benozioc and salicylic acids -resorcinol -lactic acid keratolytics
-are substances that cause a loss of sensation - the may have systemic effects, or the effects may be localized -many ointments contain local ______ and are applied topically for minor conditions such as sunburn and insect bites and for more serious dermatoses, burns, hemorrhoids and other conditions -these agents may be either applied directly to the skin or injected ansthetics
-anesthetic -is used in throat lozenges and topical preparations ex.- medicone rectal ointment/ unguentine ointment/ surfacaine ointment benzocaine
-anesthetic -is used especially in topical solutions and nasal preparation -quite addictive and comes under the restrictions of other Controlled Substances act cocaine
-anesthetics -is used in dentistry and before surgery -it must be injected procaine
-antifungal agent -the antibacterial and antifungal properties make it extremely useful in nonspecific or mixed infections -also available in combination with hydrocortisone to suppress local inflammatory reactions -topical application is helpful in some cases of eczema, athlete's foot, and intertriginous rashes clioquinol
-antifungal -has a broad spectrum of activity against fungi and yeast -available in form of a solution or cream or topical application -erythema, blistering, peeling, prurititus, and general skin irritation have been observed in sensitive individuals; application should be discontinued if these symptoms occur clotrimazole (lotrimin)
-antifungal -one daily application cure many topical tinea infections -Candida infections require twice-daily application econazole nitrate
-antifungal -used topically to treat fungal and yeast infections -effective for seborrheic dermatitis -may be some local irritation at the site of application ketoconzaloe (nizoral)
-when applied twice daily to topical fungal infections, is effective against ringworm, athlete's foot,and similar conditions -to prevent recurrences, care must be taken to continue the use of this preparation for 2wks after all visible signs of the infection have cleared -sensitivity reactions are rare tolnaftate ( tinactin)
- was one of the first topical antifungal agents and continues to be a popular over-the-counter preparation for the treatment and prevention of athlete's foot -has been surpassed by tolnaftate and other preparations zinc undecylenate ( desenex)
-is an infection caused by Candida albicans- a yeastlike organism that infects the skin and mucous memebranes moniliasis / candidiasis
-is used intravaginally for monilial infections clotrimazole
-is a water-miscible cream that is indicated for vaginal use in the treatment of vulvovaginal Candida infections -vaginal burning, hives, pelvic cramping,skin rash, and headache are very rarely observed miconazole nitrate vaginal cream (monistat)
-this commercial preparation consists of a combination of nystatin, neomycin, gramicidin, and triamcinolone acetate -the topical antibiotics and corticosteriod included in this product have been shown to be highly effective in all forms of topical Candida infections and aid in clearing secondary infections caused by local irritation and scratching of the areas mycolog cream and ointment
-vulvovaginal Candida infection may be treated topically with use of vaginal tablets -irritation or sensitization to this agent may occur very rarely nystatin vaginal tablets
-is used for the treatment of vulvovaginal monilial infections terconazole (terazol)
-general anti-infective agent -is a antiseptic dye that may be applied to surface areas for many infectious conditions -strengths of 1:1000 to 1:100, it is used to treat impetigo, thrush, fungal infections, cystitis, urethritis, and similar infections gentian violet
-wound care product - is a topical antibiotic ointment that is used to treat local infections, such as impetigo -few adverse effects occur; burning or local irritation is an indication for discontinuing the drug mupirocin calcium
- meaning that they make the skin more susceptible to burning and skin damage photosensitzers
PABA para-aminobenzoic acid
- an inflammatory eruption of the skin, occurs in most adolescents and many adults and can cause physical and emotional scars when severe acne
-also a peeling agent, is usually applied to the face i the morning after washing -some irritation or inflammation is common; if this becomes severe, the product should be discontinued -takes 6-8 wks to determine whether treatment is effective benzoyl peroxide
-is a topical anitbiotic applied directly to acneiform lesions and has been shown to be effective against Propinonibacterium acnes, one of the agents contributing to acne side effects- diarrhea and colitis can require discontinuation clindamycin phosphate
- the principal effect seems to be regulation of cell proliferation, in addition to exhibiting anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activities -used in nodular acne to reduce the size of sebaceous glands and inhibit sebum production -inhibits the adhesion of epithelial cells and permits them to be sloughed more easily side effects- conjunctivitis, thinning of the hair, photosensitivity, and hyperlipidemia isotretinoin (accutane)
- the exact mechanism of action is unknown -shown to be an effective topical treatment for atopic dermatitis in nonimmunocompromised patients pimecrolimus
-is an immunosuppressant and is used in other applications to precent organ rejection -used for atopic dermatitis, has been shown to bind to specific receptors on the T cells, which causes a series of reactions that act to reduce inflammatory response of the skin side effect- burning of the skin after application tacrolimus
- is an immune response modifier - it used primarily in the treatment of external genital and perirectal warts, but it may also be used to treat basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratoses, and condylomata acuminata side effects- redness, swelling, skin peeling, itching, and changes in skin color imiquimod cream 5% (aldara)
- have anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties -they can be absorbed from intact, healthy skin-occlusion and disease processes enhance the absorption -adverse effects- skin atrophy, depigmentation of the dark skin, and dermatologic absorption of the steroid with possible adrenal suppression- increase with duration of use and with application of higher potency steroid preparations topical corticosteroids
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