Sociology- Family and Households Flashcards


A-level Sociology and Psychology Flashcards on Sociology- Family and Households Flashcards, created by Heloise Tudor on 14/05/2014.
Heloise Tudor
Flashcards by Heloise Tudor, updated more than 1 year ago
Heloise Tudor
Created by Heloise Tudor almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Parsons 1955 Instrumental and expressive roles
March of Progress: Bott 1957 Segregated and joint conjugal roles
MOP: Young and Willmott 1962 w/c families = segregated conjugal roles. Men = breadwinners, women = housewives
Young and Willmott 1973 Symmetrical family - and the New Man
Reasons for the rise in the symmetrical family: Higher living standards, labour-saving devices,better housing, smaller families, and women working.
Ann Oakley 1974 The housewife role - result of industrialisation and is socially constructed
Oakley vs Young and Willmott They exaggerate the men's role. The husbands 'helped' but there wasn't an equal split
Boulton 1983 Who are responsible for tasks not who performs them. Less than 1 in 5 husbands the main childcarer.
Gershuny 1994 Lagged adaptation - men with wives working full-time did 27% of housework. Result of change in values & role-models, adapting to women working.
Schor 1993 Commercialisation of housework led to the 'death of the housewife role'
Dual Burden Paid work + domestic labour = women's role
Ferri and Smith 1996 Under 4% of fathers were main childcarer, so women working had little impact
Morris 1990 Men suffer a crisis of masculinity if not breadwinner, so resist feminine role. Wives do housework even if they work and husband doesn't.
Duncombe and Marsden 1995 Triple Shift - emotion work + paid work + domestic labour = women's role
Heterosexual relationships = patriarchal and unequal Radical feminist belief.
Dunne 1999 37 lesbian couples with kids, found more equal DOL
Dunne - Gender Scripts Heterosexuals socialised into gender scripts setting out masculine and feminine roles and gender identities. Lesbian DOL open to negotiation.
Kempson 1994 Women in low-income families denied their needs to make ends meet
Pahl and Vogler 1993 Allowance system = men work, give wives an allowance to budget to meet family's needs Pooling = partners work, joint responsibility for spending
Edgell 1980 - Decision Making Very important (finances, housing) = man Important = both Unimportant (food) = woman
Explanations for decision making inequality... Economic - men have power as they earn more, women economically dependent Patriarchal socialisation - gender role socialisation in patriarchal society makes men the decision makers
Domestic violence - BCS 6.6 million assaults each year 1 in 4 women assaulted by a partner at least once
Under-reporting BCS - under 1/3 reported Yearnshire 1997 - women suffer 35 assaults before reporting
Under-recording Police reluctant to get involved in 'private sphere' of family. People free to leave if unhappy.
Radical Feminist view on DV Men oppress women - through family, threat of DV allows men to control women Male dominated state - police and courts fail to take DV seriously
Dobash and Dobash DV triggered when husbands authority challenged. Marriage legitimates violence by giving men power.
Other groups at risk of DV: Children, young people, the poor, lower-classes, alcohol and drug users, tenants.
Wilkinson 1996 Patterns result of stress on family caused by social inequality. Lacking resources = stress = increased risk of violence
Childhood = social construction It varies between societies, within societies and historically.
Benedict 1934 Non-industrial society kids - more responsibility at home and work, especially economically.
Malinowski 1957 South-west pacific. Sexual behaviour in kids tolerated and evokes amused inerest
Firth 1970 Tikopia - being obedient is a concession granted by kids.
Punch 2001 Rural Bolivia - working at 5 yrs old. Less value in being obedient to adults. Sexual behaviour in kids more tolerated.
Western childhood... Special, innocent time of life. Kids seen as fundamentally different to adults. Lengthy period of nurturing and socialisation.
Jane Pilcher Childhood = special time and golden age.
Cunningham 2007 Kids seen as opposite to adults. Have the right to happiness.
Aries 1960 Childhood is a recent intention. Didn't exist in Middle ages. Artwork shows kids were like mini-adults- wore same clothes. Had same laws and punishments.
Shorter 1975 Attitudes to kids were different to now due to high death rates. High DR encouraged less emotion, kids treated with indifference and neglect, newborns weren't named.
Signs of 'childhood' emerging... Schools specialising in the education of the young. Church saw kids as 'fragile creatures of God' needing discipline and protection. Distinction between clothing etc.
Aries (on modern childhood) Cult of childhood. 20th century was the 'century of the child'
Why the changes came about... Lower IMR, smaller families (greater financial and emotional investment). Knowledge e.g supervision and protection needed. Laws banning child labour (economic assets to economic liabilities). Compulsory schooling. Child protection and welfare laws. Children's rights (Children Act 1989). Laws on social behaviour (minimum ages on smoking etc). Industrialisation (skilled workers needed)
March of Progress: Children's position improved Aries, Shorter etc say position of kids steadily improving. Family and society are child-centered. Better cared for and IMR decreased to 5. Protected from harm and exploitation.
Conflict view on childhood... Inequalities among kids: 3rd world kids have fewer chances. There are gender, ethnic and class inequalities too. Inequalities between kids and adults: oppression, control, age patriarchy.
Firestone 1979 Child liberationist. Extensive care and protection are oppressive. Separate laws aren't to benefit kids, they allow adults to control them.
Age patriarchy Adult (usually male) dominated society and family. Oppress and control kids.
Gittins 1998 Kids kept subordinate. Adults exercise control over kid's time, space and bodies. Leads to physical, sexual or emotional abuse - over 30000 kids on child protection register.
Acting-up Kids resist the restricted status of 'child' by acting older by smoking etc.
Hockey and James 1993 Acting-up shows modern childhood is a status kids want to escape.
Postman 1994 Childhood is now disappearing. Kids becoming more like adults by gaining similar rights and acting similar.
Postman 1994 - causes of childhood's disappearance TV culture replacing print culture: In print culture, kids lacked literacy skills to access information so adults kept knowledge about sex, money, violence, illness, death etc secret. In TV culture info is available to all. The boundary between adulthood and childhood is broken down and adult authority is weakened.
Opie 1993 Childhood not disappearing. Separate culture exists through games, songs etc.
Palmer 2006 Toxic childhood: technological and cultural changes are damaging kid's development e.g junk food, computer games, marketing, tests in education, parents working long hours. Kids deprived of genuine childhood.
Toxic Childhood UK youth at the top of international league tables for obesity, self-harm, drug and alcohol abuse and teenage pregnancies. UNICEF 2007 - UK 21st out of 25 for children's well being
Lee 2001 Childhood not disappeared. It's become complex and contradictory e.g kids consumers but dependent on parents for purchasing power.
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