|Instrumental and expressive roles
|March of Progress: Bott 1957
|Segregated and joint conjugal roles
|MOP: Young and Willmott 1962
|w/c families = segregated conjugal roles. Men = breadwinners, women = housewives
|Young and Willmott 1973
|Symmetrical family - and the New Man
|Reasons for the rise in the symmetrical family:
|Higher living standards, labour-saving devices,better housing, smaller families, and women working.
|Ann Oakley 1974
|The housewife role - result of industrialisation and is socially constructed
|Oakley vs Young and Willmott
|They exaggerate the men's role. The husbands 'helped' but there wasn't an equal split
|Who are responsible for tasks not who performs them. Less than 1 in 5 husbands the main childcarer.
|Lagged adaptation - men with wives working full-time did 27% of housework. Result of change in values & role-models, adapting to women working.
|Commercialisation of housework led to the 'death of the housewife role'
|Paid work + domestic labour = women's role
|Ferri and Smith 1996
|Under 4% of fathers were main childcarer, so women working had little impact
|Men suffer a crisis of masculinity if not breadwinner, so resist feminine role. Wives do housework even if they work and husband doesn't.
|Duncombe and Marsden 1995
|Triple Shift - emotion work + paid work + domestic labour = women's role
|Heterosexual relationships = patriarchal and unequal
|Radical feminist belief.
|37 lesbian couples with kids, found more equal DOL
|Dunne - Gender Scripts
|Heterosexuals socialised into gender scripts setting out masculine and feminine roles and gender identities. Lesbian DOL open to negotiation.
|Women in low-income families denied their needs to make ends meet
|Pahl and Vogler 1993
|Allowance system = men work, give wives an allowance to budget to meet family's needs Pooling = partners work, joint responsibility for spending
|Edgell 1980 - Decision Making
|Very important (finances, housing) = man Important = both Unimportant (food) = woman
|Explanations for decision making inequality...
|Economic - men have power as they earn more, women economically dependent Patriarchal socialisation - gender role socialisation in patriarchal society makes men the decision makers
|Domestic violence - BCS
|6.6 million assaults each year 1 in 4 women assaulted by a partner at least once
|BCS - under 1/3 reported Yearnshire 1997 - women suffer 35 assaults before reporting
|Police reluctant to get involved in 'private sphere' of family. People free to leave if unhappy.
|Radical Feminist view on DV
|Men oppress women - through family, threat of DV allows men to control women Male dominated state - police and courts fail to take DV seriously
|Dobash and Dobash
|DV triggered when husbands authority challenged. Marriage legitimates violence by giving men power.
|Other groups at risk of DV:
|Children, young people, the poor, lower-classes, alcohol and drug users, tenants.
|Patterns result of stress on family caused by social inequality. Lacking resources = stress = increased risk of violence
|Childhood = social construction
|It varies between societies, within societies and historically.
|Non-industrial society kids - more responsibility at home and work, especially economically.
|South-west pacific. Sexual behaviour in kids tolerated and evokes amused inerest
|Tikopia - being obedient is a concession granted by kids.
|Rural Bolivia - working at 5 yrs old. Less value in being obedient to adults. Sexual behaviour in kids more tolerated.
|Special, innocent time of life. Kids seen as fundamentally different to adults. Lengthy period of nurturing and socialisation.
|Childhood = special time and golden age.
|Kids seen as opposite to adults. Have the right to happiness.
|Childhood is a recent intention. Didn't exist in Middle ages. Artwork shows kids were like mini-adults- wore same clothes. Had same laws and punishments.
|Attitudes to kids were different to now due to high death rates. High DR encouraged less emotion, kids treated with indifference and neglect, newborns weren't named.
|Signs of 'childhood' emerging...
|Schools specialising in the education of the young. Church saw kids as 'fragile creatures of God' needing discipline and protection. Distinction between clothing etc.
|Aries (on modern childhood)
|Cult of childhood. 20th century was the 'century of the child'
|Why the changes came about...
|Lower IMR, smaller families (greater financial and emotional investment). Knowledge e.g supervision and protection needed. Laws banning child labour (economic assets to economic liabilities). Compulsory schooling. Child protection and welfare laws. Children's rights (Children Act 1989). Laws on social behaviour (minimum ages on smoking etc). Industrialisation (skilled workers needed)
|March of Progress: Children's position improved
|Aries, Shorter etc say position of kids steadily improving. Family and society are child-centered. Better cared for and IMR decreased to 5. Protected from harm and exploitation.
|Conflict view on childhood...
|Inequalities among kids: 3rd world kids have fewer chances. There are gender, ethnic and class inequalities too. Inequalities between kids and adults: oppression, control, age patriarchy.
|Child liberationist. Extensive care and protection are oppressive. Separate laws aren't to benefit kids, they allow adults to control them.
|Adult (usually male) dominated society and family. Oppress and control kids.
|Kids kept subordinate. Adults exercise control over kid's time, space and bodies. Leads to physical, sexual or emotional abuse - over 30000 kids on child protection register.
|Kids resist the restricted status of 'child' by acting older by smoking etc.
|Hockey and James 1993
|Acting-up shows modern childhood is a status kids want to escape.
|Childhood is now disappearing. Kids becoming more like adults by gaining similar rights and acting similar.
|Postman 1994 - causes of childhood's disappearance
|TV culture replacing print culture: In print culture, kids lacked literacy skills to access information so adults kept knowledge about sex, money, violence, illness, death etc secret. In TV culture info is available to all. The boundary between adulthood and childhood is broken down and adult authority is weakened.
|Childhood not disappearing. Separate culture exists through games, songs etc.
|Toxic childhood: technological and cultural changes are damaging kid's development e.g junk food, computer games, marketing, tests in education, parents working long hours. Kids deprived of genuine childhood.
|UK youth at the top of international league tables for obesity, self-harm, drug and alcohol abuse and teenage pregnancies. UNICEF 2007 - UK 21st out of 25 for children's well being
|Childhood not disappeared. It's become complex and contradictory e.g kids consumers but dependent on parents for purchasing power.