|What is health?
|The state of physical and emotional well being
|Main causes of ill health
|Communicable (infectious) diseases Non-communicable diseases Diet – a poor diet can affect your physical and mental health. Stress – can lead to health issues Life situations – e.g. if you have easy access to medicines, healthy food. May all have an impact on your physical and mental health
|The difference between communicable and non-communicable diseases
|Communicable diseases can spread from person to person or between animals and people. They’re sometimes described as contagious or infectious. Non-communicable diseases cannot spread between people or between animals and people. They generally last a long time and get worse slowly e.g. asthma, cancer, coronary heart disease.
|How can suffering from a disease make you susceptible to other diseases?
|Many diseases are caused by the interaction of a number of factors. Problems with the immune system can make you more likely to suffer from infectious (communicable) diseases Viruses living in cells can be the trigger for cancers e.g. HPV (human papilloma virus) can cause cervical cancer. Immune system reactions caused by infection by pathogens can trigger allergies such as skin rashes and asthma. Severe physical illness can lead to depression and other mental illness.
|How can non-communicable diseases be costly?
|There is a human cost – tens of millions of people around the world die from non-communicable diseases each year. People with these diseases may have a lower quality of life or shorter lifespan – this affects the sufferers and their families. There is also a financial cost – cost to the NHS of researching and treating these diseases is huge. Families may have to move or adapt their homes to help a family member who is ill. If the person with the disease has to give up work or dies the family’s income will be reduced. A reduction in the number of people able to work can also affect a country’s economy.
|What are risk factors?
|Risk factors are linked to an increased rate of a disease. They increase the likelihood a person will develop a disease during their lifetime, but don’t guarantee someone will get the disease. They can be: 1. - aspects of a person’s lifestyle e.g. how much exercise they do. 2. - substances in the person’s body or environment. E.g. air pollution, exposure to asbestos. Many non-communicable diseases are caused by several risk factors interacting.
|How can lifestyle factors have different impacts locally?
|Locally - Individual choices affect the local incidence of disease.
|How can lifestyle factors have different impacts nationally?
|Nationally - people in deprived areas are more likely to smoke, have a poor diet and not exercise. This means the incidence of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes are higher in these areas.
|How can lifestlye factors impact globally?
|Globally - In developed countries non-communicable diseases are more common. This is because people generally have higher incomes and can buy high fat food.